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Tillage practices and weather affect the release of greenhouse gases but there have been few integrated studies of the quantities released or the mechanisms involved. No-tillage may increase emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and the ®xation of carbon by decreasing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Tillage may also decrease the oxidation rate of atmospheric(More)
BACKGROUND Continuous quality improvement (CQI) is widely used in other industries and has been promoted as a method for quality control in medicine. The national databases developed by the American College of Cardiology and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons have greatly facilitated data collection for CQI. Hospitals can encounter barriers to CQI, however,(More)
The impacts of three alternative models of pharmacist consultation on the use and cost of health care services were studied. Two studies were conducted concurrently in an HMO over two years. In one, 6000 patients were randomly assigned to one of three consultation models; in the other, the three models were implemented in six geographic regions of(More)
The impacts of two models of pharmacist consultation on patient satisfaction with pharmaceutical services relative to a control model were studied. Patients in the random-assignment and areawide studies of the Kaiser Permanente/USC Patient Consultation Study were asked to rate their satisfaction with six aspects of the service they received at the pharmacy.(More)
AIM To summarize key evidence on nursing skill mix in acute care hospitals and their limitations; and identify the gaps in current literature vis-à-vis Singapore's nursing workforce. BACKGROUND Nursing skill mix has been theorized to be a factor influencing patient, nurse and organizational outcomes. While there is a growing body of literature explicating(More)
The impacts of two models of pharmacist consultation on patient function and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) relative to a control model were studied. Patients in the random-assignment study and the areawide study of the Kaiser Permanente/USC Patient Consultation Study were surveyed three times over a two-year period. The patients were receiving(More)
Leptospira interrogans is a zoonotic pathogen hosted commensally by many mammalian species. On the Western Pacific island of American Samoa a seroprevalence survey conducted in 2004 indicated that 17% of subjects tested had been exposed to several Leptospira serovars, including L. interogans icterohaemorrhagiae. Resource management agencies promoted(More)
The UNIX® operating system, developed by AT&T Bell Laboratories, has become a standard operating system gaining rapid acceptance because of its superior flexibility, portability, and a number of support tools to increase programmer productivity. However, UNIX was originally designed for multitasking and time-sharing, and therefore(More)
This paper is an overview of this special issue devoted to watershed research in Acadia National Park (Acadia NP). The papers address components of an integrated research program on two upland watersheds at Acadia NP, USA (44 degrees 20' N latitude; 68 degrees 15' E longitude). These watersheds were instrumented in 1998 to provide a long-term foundation for(More)
Optical refrigeration has been demonstrated by several groups of researchers, but the cooling elements have not been thermally linked to realistic heat loads in ways that achieve the desired temperatures. The ideal thermal link will have minimal surface area, provide complete optical isolation for the load, and possess high thermal conductivity. We have(More)