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A two-dimensional sheet of anisotropic cardiac tissue is represented with the bidomain model, and the finite element method is used to solve the bidomain equations. When the anisotropy ratios of the intracellular and extracellular spaces are not equal, the injection of current into the tissue induces a transmembrane potential that has a complicated spatial(More)
Electrical activity in the gastrointestinal system produces magnetic fields that may be measured with superconducting quantum interference device magnetometers. Although typical magnetometers have detection coils that measure a single component of the magnetic field, gastric and intestinal magnetic fields are vector quantities. We recorded gastric and(More)
OBJECTIVE Rapid stimulation causes electrical remodeling in the intact atrium, with shortening of action potential duration (APD), down-regulation of L-type Ca2+ currents (I(Ca,L)), and increased vulnerability to atrial fibrillation (AF). The essential elements required for this process are currently unknown. We tested the hypothesis that rapid stimulation(More)
A theoretical model of magneto-acoustic current imaging is derived, based on fundamental equations of continuum mechanics and electromagnetism. In electrically active tissue, the interaction between an applied magnetic field, B, and action currents, J, creates a pressure distribution. In the near field limit, this pressure obeys Poisson's equation, with a(More)
An understanding of chemotaxis at the level of cell-molecule interactions is important because of its relevance in cancer, immunology, and microbiology, just to name a few. This study quantifies the effects of flow on cell migration during chemotaxis in a microfluidic device. The chemotaxis gradient within the device was modeled and compared to experimental(More)
INTRODUCTION The "critical point hypothesis" for induction of ventricular fibrillation has previously been extended to infer the coexistence of four critical points, and hence four simultaneous spiral reentries or a quatrefoil reentry, resulting from only one premature stimulus delivered to the same location as the pacing stimulus. An optical imaging(More)
Fluorescence imaging has become a common modality in cardiac electrodynamics. A single fluorescent parameter is typically measured. Given the growing emphasis on simultaneous imaging of more than one cardiac variable, we present an analysis of the potential of dual camera imaging, using as an example our straightforward dual camera system that allows(More)
Numerical calculations simulated the response of cardiac muscle to stimulation by electrical current. The bidomain model with unequal anisotropy ratios represented the tissue, and parallel leak and active sodium channels represented the membrane conductance. The speed of the wavefront was faster in the direction parallel to the myocardial fibers than in the(More)
Cardiac reentrant arrhythmias may be examined by using time-series analysis, where a state variable is plotted against the same variable with an embedded time delay tau to form a phase portrait. The success of this procedure is contingent upon the resultant phase-space trajectories encircling a fixed origin. However, errors in interpreting the dynamics of(More)