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Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) expression is deregulated in many cancers. Genetic and biochemical approaches coupled with functional assays in cultured cells were used to explore the consequences of Nrf2 repression. Nrf2 suppression by Keap1-directed ubiquitylation or the expression of independent short hairpin RNA (shRNA)/siRNA(More)
The unique time course of an excitable element in cardiac tissue can be represented as the phase of its trajectory in state space. A phase singularity is defined as a spatial point where the surrounding phase values changes by a total of 2 pi, thereby forming the organizing center for a reentrant excitatory wave, a phenomenon which occurs in cardiac(More)
The measurement, quantitative analysis, theory, and mathematical modeling of transmembrane potential and currents have been an integral part of the field of electrophysiology since its inception. Biophysical modeling of action potential propagation begins with detailed ionic current models for a patch of membrane within a distributed cable model.(More)
Automated cell manipulation in optical tweezers-assisted microfluidic chamber. IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, Accepted for publication. Readers are encouraged to get the official version from the journal's web site or by contacting Dr. Abstract In this paper, we present a physics-aware, planning approach for automated transport of(More)
Control is intrinsic to biological organisms, whose cells are in a constant state of sensing and response to numerous external and self-generated stimuli. Diverse means are used to study the complexity through control-based approaches in these cellular systems, including through chemical and genetic manipulations, input-output methodologies, feedback(More)
The reverse engineering of metabolic networks from experimental data is traditionally a labor-intensive task requiring a priori systems knowledge. Using a proven model as a test system, we demonstrate an automated method to simplify this process by modifying an existing or related model--suggesting nonlinear terms and structural modifications--or even(More)
BACKGROUND Multiple myeloma is a hematologic malignancy associated with the development of a destructive osteolytic bone disease. RESULTS Mathematical models are developed for normal bone remodeling and for the dysregulated bone remodeling that occurs in myeloma bone disease. The models examine the critical signaling between osteoclasts (bone resorption)(More)
Optical imaging of transmembrane potentials in cardiac tissue is a rapidly growing technique in cardiac electrophysiology. Traditional studies typically use a monocular imaging setup, thus limiting investigation to a restricted region of tissue. However, studies of large-scale wavefront dynamics, especially those during fibrillation and defibrillation,(More)
Coupled systems of in vitro microfabricated organs-on-a-chip containing small populations of human cells are being developed to address the formidable pharmacological and physiological gaps between monolayer cell cultures, animal models, and humans that severely limit the speed and efficiency of drug development. These gaps present challenges not only in(More)
The sophistication and success of recently reported microfabricated organs-on-chips and human organ constructs have made it possible to design scaled and interconnected organ systems that may significantly augment the current drug development pipeline and lead to advances in systems biology. Physiologically realistic live microHuman (μHu) and milliHuman(More)