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A two-dimensional sheet of anisotropic cardiac tissue is represented with the bidomain model, and the finite element method is used to solve the bidomain equations. When the anisotropy ratios of the intracellular and extracellular spaces are not equal, the injection of current into the tissue induces a transmembrane potential that has a complicated spatial(More)
OBJECTIVE Rapid stimulation causes electrical remodeling in the intact atrium, with shortening of action potential duration (APD), down-regulation of L-type Ca2+ currents (I(Ca,L)), and increased vulnerability to atrial fibrillation (AF). The essential elements required for this process are currently unknown. We tested the hypothesis that rapid stimulation(More)
The small intestinal basic electrical rhythm (BER) was detected simultaneously with serosal electrodes and a transabdominal superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer in anesthetized rabbits. We induced mesenteric ischemia to correlate serosal electrode recording of changes in BER with the SQUID magnetometer. The BER frequency was(More)
Electrical activity in the gastrointestinal system produces magnetic fields that may be measured with superconducting quantum interference device magnetometers. Although typical magnetometers have detection coils that measure a single component of the magnetic field, gastric and intestinal magnetic fields are vector quantities. We recorded gastric and(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors assessed the ability of a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometer to noninvasively detect mesenteric ischemia in a rabbit model. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA Superconducting Quantum Interference Device magnetometers have been used to detect magnetic fields created by the basic electrical rhythm (BER) and to detect(More)
Fluorescence imaging has become a common modality in cardiac electrodynamics. A single fluorescent parameter is typically measured. Given the growing emphasis on simultaneous imaging of more than one cardiac variable, we present an analysis of the potential of dual camera imaging, using as an example our straightforward dual camera system that allows(More)
Optical mapping with voltage-sensitive dyes provides a high-resolution technique to observe cardiac electrodynamic behavior. Although most studies assume that the fluorescent signal is emitted from the surface layer of cells, the effects of signal attenuation with depth on signal interpretation are still unclear. This simulation study examines the effects(More)
During cardiac disturbances such as ischemia and hyperkalemia, the extracellular potassium ion concentration is elevated. This in turn changes the resting transmembrane potential and affects the excitability of cardiac tissue. To test the hypothesis that extracellular potassium elevation also alters the stimulation mechanism, we used optical fluorescence(More)
An understanding of chemotaxis at the level of cell-molecule interactions is important because of its relevance in cancer, immunology, and microbiology, just to name a few. This study quantifies the effects of flow on cell migration during chemotaxis in a microfluidic device. The chemotaxis gradient within the device was modeled and compared to experimental(More)
Numerical calculations simulated the response of cardiac muscle to stimulation by electrical current. The bidomain model with unequal anisotropy ratios represented the tissue, and parallel leak and active sodium channels represented the membrane conductance. The speed of the wavefront was faster in the direction parallel to the myocardial fibers than in the(More)