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The plant genes required for the growth and reproduction of plant pathogens are largely unknown. In an effort to identify these genes, we isolated Arabidopsis mutants that do not support the normal growth of the powdery mildew pathogen Erysiphe cichoracearum. Here, we report on the cloning and characterization of one of these genes, PMR6. PMR6 encodes a(More)
Powdery mildews and other obligate biotrophic pathogens are highly adapted to their hosts and often show limited host ranges. One facet of such host specialization is likely to be penetration of the host cell wall, a major barrier to infection. A mutation in the pmr5 gene rendered Arabidopsis resistant to the powdery mildew species Erysiphe cichoracearum(More)
BACKGROUND Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) is rapidly emerging as a powerful model system to facilitate research aimed at improving grass crops for grain, forage and energy production. To characterize the natural diversity of Brachypodium and provide a valuable new tool to the growing list of resources available to Brachypodium researchers, we(More)
Plants attacked by pathogens rapidly deposit callose, a beta-1,3-glucan, at wound sites. Traditionally, this deposition is thought to reinforce the cell wall and is regarded as a defense response. Surprisingly, here we found that powdery mildew resistant 4 (pmr4), a mutant lacking pathogen-induced callose, became resistant to pathogens, rather than more(More)
BACKGROUND Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) has been recognized as a new model species for comparative and functional genomics of cereal and bioenergy crops because it possesses many biological attributes desirable in a model, such as a small genome size, short stature, self-pollinating habit, and short generation cycle. To maximize the utility of(More)
During exocytosis, the evolutionarily conserved exocyst complex tethers Golgi-derived vesicles to the target plasma membrane, a critical function for secretory pathways. Here we show that exo70B1 loss-of-function mutants express activated defense responses upon infection and express enhanced resistance to fungal, oomycete and bacterial pathogens. In a(More)
The model grass Brachypodium distachyon is increasingly used to study various aspects of grass biology. A large and genotypically diverse collection of B. distachyon germplasm has been assembled by the research community. The natural variation in this collection can serve as a powerful experimental tool for many areas of inquiry, including investigating(More)
Grass crop genomics research frequently is hindered by large genome sizes and polyploidy. While rice is an attractive system for grass genomics due to its small genome size and available genome sequence, it is not particularly well-suited as a robust model system for all grass crops. The wild grass species Brachypodium distachyon (L.) P. Beauv.(More)
The model grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) is an excellent system for studying the basic biology underlying traits relevant to the use of grasses as food, forage and energy crops. To add to the growing collection of Brachypodium resources available to plant scientists, we further optimized our Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated high-efficiency(More)
BACKGROUND The hypersensitive necrosis response (HR) of resistant plants to avirulent pathogens is a form of programmed cell death in which the plant sacrifices a few cells under attack, restricting pathogen growth into adjacent healthy tissues. In spite of the importance of this defense response, relatively little is known about the plant components that(More)