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Abiotic chemical signals discovered in smoke that are known as karrikins (KARs) and the endogenous hormone strigolactone (SL) control plant growth through a shared MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 (MAX2)-dependent pathway. A SL biosynthetic pathway and candidate KAR/SL receptors have been characterized, but signaling downstream of MAX2 is poorly defined. A screen for(More)
The plant hormones strigolactones and smoke-derived karrikins are butenolide signals that control distinct aspects of plant development. Perception of both molecules in Arabidopsis thaliana requires the F-box protein MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 (MAX2). Recent studies suggest that the homologous SUPPRESSOR OF MAX2 1 (SMAX1) in Arabidopsis and DWARF53 (D53) in rice(More)
Centrioles and basal bodies are cylinders composed of nine triplet microtubule blades that play essential roles in the centrosome and in flagellar assembly. Chlamydomonas cells with the bld2-1 mutation fail to assemble doublet and triplet microtubules and have defects in cleavage furrow placement and meiosis. Using positional cloning, we have walked 720 kb(More)
Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots perceive gravity and reorient their growth accordingly. Starch-dense amyloplasts within the columella cells of the root cap are important for gravitropism, and starchless mutants such as pgm1 display an attenuated response to gravistimulation. The altered response to gravity1 (arg1) mutant is known to be involved(More)
SMAX1 and SMXL2 control seedling growth, demonstrating functional redundancy within a gene family that mediates karrikin and strigolactone responses. Strigolactones (SLs) are plant hormones with butenolide moieties that control diverse aspects of plant growth, including shoot branching. Karrikins (KARs) are butenolide molecules found in smoke that enhance(More)
In flowering plants, gravity perception appears to involve the sedimentation of starch-filled plastids, called amyloplasts, within specialized cells (the statocytes) of shoots (endodermal cells) and roots (columella cells). Unfortunately, how the physical information derived from amyloplast sedimentation is converted into a biochemical signal that promotes(More)
The effect of interleukin-3 (IL-3) on conceptus production of ovine interferon tau (olFNτ) was examined using two dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D SDS-PAGE), western blot, northern/slot blot,in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical methodologies. Ovine conceptuses (day 17,n=14) were culturedin vitro for 24 h in(More)
• Transgenomics is the process of introducing genomic clones from a donor species into a recipient species and then screening the resultant transgenic lines for phenotypes of interest. This method might allow us to find genes involved in the evolution of phenotypic differences between species as well as genes that have the potential to contribute to(More)
Amyloplasts, organelles responsible for the synthesis and storage of starch, are of critical importance to gravitropism in higher plants. We discuss two methods that are useful for describing the histology and behavior of amyloplasts. First, because mutants with little or no plastidic starch accumulation are defective in their gravitropic response, we(More)
Social risks such as exposure to family violence, drug or alcohol abuse, poverty, adolescent parenting, or a history of abuse and neglect can limit parenting ability because individuals may lack the physical, personal, or emotional resources to provide an environment that facilitates the optimal development of infants. Community health, home care, and other(More)