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Twenty-two molecular diagnostic laboratories from 14 countries participated in a consortium study to estimate the impact of Factor VIII gene inversions in severe hemophilia A. A total of 2,093 patients with severe hemophilia A were studied; of those, 740 (35%) had a type 1 (distal) factor VIII inversion, and 140 (7%) showed a type 2 (proximal) inversion. In(More)
Under natural conditions and in some experimental models, rabies virus infection of the central nervous system causes relatively mild histopathological changes, without prominent evidence of neuronal death despite its lethality. In this study, the effects of rabies virus infection on the structure of neurons were investigated with experimentally infected(More)
Mice develop a fatal encephalomyelitis after infection with the Trinidad donkey strain of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus. Adult mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with VEE virus and the brains were examined at different time points. Morphological changes were assessed by histological staining. VEE virus antigen was detected with(More)
Cultured rat prostatic adenocarcinoma (AT3) cells infected with the challenge virus standard (CVS) strain of fixed rabies virus showed characteristic morphologic features of apoptosis, evidence of oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation, and expression of the Bax protein. CVS-infected Bcl-2-transfected AT3 cells did not demonstrate these features. Adult ICR mice(More)
Rapid and massive death of motoneurons occurs following axotomy in neonatal mammals. This likely results from the neurons being deprived of access to target-derived trophic factors, as their death can be prevented by application of a variety of neurotrophic factors to the proximal end of the cut nerve. Since trophic factor-deprived embryonic chick(More)
A consensus sequence for the human long interspersed repeated DNA element, L1Hs (LINE or KpnI sequence), is presented. The sequence contains two open reading frames (ORFs) which are homologous to ORFs in corresponding regions of L1 elements in other species. The L1Hs ORFs are separated by a small evolutionarily nonconserved region. The 5' end of the(More)
There is recent in vitro evidence that human neurons express the innate immune response receptor, Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR-3), and that expression is enhanced in viral infections. The authors examined the immunohistochemical expression of TLR-3 in the cerebellar cortex of postmortem human brains. Purkinje cells were found to express TLR-3 in all cases of(More)
The factor VIII gene, which is defective in hemophilia A, is located in the last megabase of the long arm of the X chromosome. Inversions due to intrachromosomal homologous recombination between mispaired copies of gene A located within intron 22 of the gene and about 500 kb telomeric to it account for nearly half of all cases of severe hemophilia A. We(More)
Recent reports have suggested that rabies virus phosphoprotein (P) interaction with dynein minus-end-directed microtubule motor proteins may be of fundamental importance in the axonal transport of rabies virus. A deletion of 11 amino acids was introduced into recombinant rabies virus SAD-L16 (L16) that modified the dynein light chain (LC8) binding site of(More)