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Botryosphaeria is a species-rich genus with a cosmopolitan distribution, commonly associated with dieback and cankers of woody plants. As many as 18 anamorph genera have been associated with Botryosphaeria, most of which have been reduced to synonymy under Diplodia (conidia mostly ovoid, pigmented, thick-walled), or Fusicoccum (conidia mostly fusoid,(More)
The fumonisins are mycotoxins produced mainly by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum in maize, the predominant cereal staple for subsistence farming communities in southern Africa. In order to assess exposure to these mycotoxins in the Bizana (now known as Mbizana) and Centane magisterial areas of the former Transkei region of the Eastern Cape(More)
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important food crop in sub-Saharan Africa. In this survey, the mycological and aflatoxin contamination of peanuts collected from Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Pretoria, South Africa, was assessed. Twenty peanut samples were purchased randomly at informal markets in the two cities and analysed for mycoflora(More)
Six strains of Fusarium verticillioides, two of F. oxysporum, one strain of F. proliferatum, and a strain of an unidentified species were cultured on maize patties and rice and evaluated for their ability to simultaneously produce fumonisin B (FB) and C (FC) series analogues. Fumonisins were quantified by LC-MS-MS using positive ion electrospray ionization.(More)
Maize harvested in the Centane region of the former Transkei, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, by subsistence farmers has been shown over many seasons to be contaminated with fumonisin mycotoxins. However, there are limited data on the presence of other mycotoxins. Two multimycotoxin LC-MS/MS methods were applied to good and moldy maize samples, as(More)
Subsistence farmers are exposed to a range of mycotoxins. This study applied novel urinary multi-mycotoxin LC-MS/MS methods to determine multiple exposure biomarkers in the high oesophageal cancer region, Transkei, South Africa. Fifty-three female participants donated part of their maize-based evening meal and first void morning urine, which was analysed(More)
Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that may contaminate food and pose a health risk, especially in developing countries, where there is a lack of food security and quality is subsumed by food insufficiency. Aflatoxins are the most toxic known mycotoxins and are a significant risk factor for liver and kidney cancer,(More)
ABSTRACT Fusarium isolates recovered from sorghum and millet are commonly identified as F. moniliforme, but with the recognition of new species in this group, the strains given this name are being re-evaluated. We analyzed five strains each from five Fusarium species (F. andiyazi, F. nygamai, F. pseudonygamai, F. thapsinum, and F. verticillioides) often(More)
BACKGROUND The consumption of maize highly contaminated with carcinogenic fumonisins has been linked to high oesophageal cancer rates. The aim of this study was to validate a urinary fumonisin B1 (UFB1) biomarker as a measure of fumonisin exposure and to investigate the reduction in exposure following a simple and culturally acceptable intervention. (More)