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Fluorescent probes for monitoring mitochondrial membrane potential are frequently used for assessing mitochondrial function, particularly in the context of cell fate determination in biological and biomedical research. However, valid interpretation of results obtained with such probes requires careful consideration of numerous controls, as well as possible(More)
In the past decade we have seen a milder phenotype and decreased incidence of HIV-1 associated dementia (HAD), largely due to the widespread use of combination chemotherapy to reduce viral burden. However, the prevalence of neurologic disease in people living with HIV-1 has actually increased, raising significant concerns that new therapeutic strategies,(More)
Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) are a diverse group of fatty acid-derived compounds emitted by all plants and are involved in a wide variety of developmental and stress-related biological functions. Recently, GLV emission bursts from leaves were reported following light–dark transitions and hypothesized to be related to the stress response while acetaldehyde(More)
Despite the efficacy of highly active antiretroviral therapy in reducing viral burden, neurologic disease associated with HIV-1 infection of the CNS has not decreased in prevalence. HIV-1 does not induce disease by direct infection of neurons, although extensive data suggest that intra-CNS viral burden correlates with both the severity of virally induced(More)
Methods for growing primary neuronal cultures rely on the inclusion of antioxidants in the culture medium, but no studies have determined precisely if or when antioxidants are required for neuronal survival, despite the significance this information would have for understanding neurodevelopment and studying oxidative stress. We show that cortical neurons(More)
Neurologic disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is ultimately refractory to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) because of failure of complete virus eradication in the central nervous system (CNS), and disruption of normal neural signaling events by virally induced chronic neuroinflammation. We have previously reported that(More)
HIV-1 causes a common, progressive neurological disorder known as HIV-associated dementia (HAD). The prevalence of this disorder has increased despite the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, and its underlying pathogenesis remains poorly understood. However, evidence suggests that some aspects of HAD may be reversible. To model the reversible(More)
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