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For many years, Taq polymerase has served as the stalwart enzyme in the PCR amplification of DNA. However, a major limitation of Taq is its inability to amplify damaged DNA, thereby restricting its usefulness in forensic applications. In contrast, Y-family DNA polymerases, such as Dpo4 from Sulfolobus solfataricus, can traverse a wide variety of DNA(More)
Recent studies suggest that DNA polymerase eta (poleta) and DNA polymerase iota (poliota) are involved in somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin variable genes. To test the role of poliota in generating mutations in an animal model, we first characterized the biochemical properties of murine poliota. Like its human counterpart, murine poliota is extremely(More)
Damage-inducible mutagenesis in prokaryotes is largely dependent upon the activity of the UmuD'C-like proteins. Since many DNA repair processes are structurally and/or functionally conserved between prokaryotes and eukaryotes, we investigated the role of RAD30, a previously uncharacterized Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA repair gene related to the Escherichia(More)
Escherichia coli possesses five known DNA polymerases (pols). Pol III holoenzyme is the cell's main replicase, while pol I is responsible for the maturation of Okazaki fragments and filling gaps generated during nucleotide excision repair. Pols II, IV and V are significantly upregulated as part of the cell's global SOS response to DNA damage and under these(More)
For life to be sustained, mistakes in DNA repair must be tolerated when damage obscures the genetic information. In bacteria such as Escherichia coli, DNA damage elicits the well regulated 'SOS response'. For the extreme case of damage that cannot be repaired by conventional enzymes, there are proteins that allow the replication of DNA through such lesions,(More)
N3-methyl-adenine (3MeA) is the major cytotoxic lesion formed in DNA by S(N)2 methylating agents. The lesion presumably blocks progression of cellular replicases because the N3-methyl group hinders interactions between the polymerase and the minor groove of DNA. However, this hypothesis has yet to be rigorously proven, as 3MeA is intrinsically unstable and(More)
DNA polymerase iota (pol iota) is one of several recently discovered DNA polymerases in mammalian cells whose function is unknown. We report here that human pol iota has an intrinsic 5'-deoxyribose phosphate (dRP) lyase activity. In reactions reconstituted with uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG), apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease and DNA ligase I, pol iota(More)
The active form of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase V responsible for damage-induced mutagenesis is a multiprotein complex (UmuD'(2)C-RecA-ATP), called pol V Mut. Optimal activity of pol V Mut in vitro is observed on an SSB-coated single-stranded circular DNA template in the presence of the β/γ complex and a transactivated RecA nucleoprotein filament, RecA*.(More)
Stringent steric exclusion mechanisms limit the misincorporation of ribonucleotides by high-fidelity DNA polymerases into genomic DNA. In contrast, low-fidelity Escherichia coli DNA polymerase V (pol V) has relatively poor sugar discrimination and frequently misincorporates ribonucleotides. Substitution of a steric gate tyrosine residue with alanine(More)
Escherichia coli pol V (UmuD'(2)C), the main translesion DNA polymerase, ensures continued nascent strand extension when the cellular replicase is blocked by unrepaired DNA lesions. Pol V is characterized by low sugar selectivity, which can be further reduced by a Y11A "steric-gate" substitution in UmuC that enables pol V to preferentially incorporate rNTPs(More)