BACKGROUND Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), infects approximately 8 million annually culminating in approximately 2 million deaths. Moreover, about one third of the population is latently infected, 10% of which develop disease during lifetime. Current approved prophylactic TB vaccines (BCG and derivatives thereof) are of… (More)
Dissections of the fiber orientation and interconnections of the lateral knee retinacula in 23 cadaver knees and one fresh knee demonstrate a superficial, oblique retinacular ligament running from fascia lata to patella. Deep to this structure are a separate distinct transverse band to the patella, an epicondylopatellar and a patellotibial band. Awareness… (More)
BACKGROUND We report a first-in-human trial evaluating safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant BCG, AERAS-422, over-expressing TB antigens Ag85A, Ag85B, and Rv3407 and expressing mutant perfringolysin. METHODS This was a randomized, double-blind, dose-escalation trial in HIV-negative, healthy adult, BCG-naïve volunteers, negative for prior exposure to… (More)
BACKGROUND The medial patellofemoral ligament varies in attachment of its fibers to the patella and vastus intermedius tendon. Our aim was to identify and describe its anatomic midpoint. To account for the variability of the attachment site, we refer to it as the medial patellofemoral complex. METHODS Using AutoCAD software, we identified the midpoint of… (More)
The failure of current Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines, given to neonates to protect against adult tuberculosis and the risk of using these live vaccines in HIV-infected infants, has emphasized the need for generating new, more efficacious and safer replacement vaccines. With the availability of genetic techniques for constructing… (More)
Anterior knee complaints are difficult diagnostic problems. It cannot be overstated that the most important information available is to be found in the patient's history. Onset, quality, and quantity of symptoms must be assessed. This information is then synthesized to determine the specific functional disabilities resulting from the patient's anterior knee… (More)
Ulnar neuropathy can be caused by forceful poling in cross-country skiing. The condition appears to be elicited by extension of the elbow with concomitant contraction of the flexor carpi ulnaris and triceps while driving the arm and shoulder downwards and behind the body.