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OBJECTIVE The effectiveness of intentional weight loss in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in type 2 diabetes is unknown. This report describes 1-year changes in CVD risk factors in a trial designed to examine the long-term effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention on the incidence of major CVD events. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This(More)
In excess of 55% of adults in the United States are classified as either overweight (body mass index = 25-29.9 kg.m(-2)) or obese (body mass index > or = 30 kg.m(-2)). To address this significant public health problem, the American College of Sports Medicine recommends that the combination of reductions in energy intake and increases in energy expenditure,(More)
Behavior modification applied to the treatment of obesity has evolved from the environmental control of eating behavior to a broader approach characterized by systematic manipulation of all factors associated with eating and exercise patterns. This approach has shown success in helping obese persons lose modest amounts of weight. The average length of(More)
CONTEXT Orlistat, a gastrointestinal lipase inhibitor that reduces dietary fat absorption by approximately 30%, may promote weight loss and reduce cardiovascular risk factors. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that orlistat combined with dietary intervention is more effective than placebo plus diet for weight loss and maintenance over 2 years. DESIGN(More)
This report provides a further analysis of the first year weight losses in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study and identifies factors associated with success. Participants were a total of 5,145 men and women with type 2 diabetes who were recruited at 16 sites and randomly assigned to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) or a control(More)
The purpose of this study was to develop a psychological profile of smokeless tobacco users. We surveyed 1991 college students regarding their use of tobacco products. Twenty-one percent of the white males used smokeless tobacco compared to only 10.4% of blacks, 5.4% of Hispanics, and 5.4% of others, primarily Asians. Although the prevalence of smokeless(More)
AIM This article provides the first comprehensive meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials of medications for obesity. METHOD Based on stringent inclusionary criteria, a total of 108 studies were included in the final database. Outcomes are presented for comparisons of single and combination drugs to placebo and for comparisons of medications to one(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to evaluate obesity classifications from body fat percentage (BF%), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). METHODS A total of 451 overweight/obese active duty military personnel completed all three assessments. RESULTS Most were obese (men, 81%; women, 98%) using National Institutes of Health (NIH)(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the relative impact of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) on use and costs of health care within the Look AHEAD trial. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 5,121 overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to an ILI that promoted weight loss or to a comparison condition of diabetes support and(More)
This study evaluated the effectiveness of nondieting versus dieting treatments for overweight, binge-eating women. Participants (N = 219) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: diet treatment (DT), nondiet treatment (NDT), or wait-list control (WLC). DT received a balanced-deficit diet reinforced with behavioral strategies. NDT received therapy designed(More)