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Recent changes in Antarctic seabird populations may reflect direct and indirect responses to regional climate change. The best long-term data for high-latitude Antarctic seabirds (Adélie and Emperor penguins and snow petrels) indicate that winter sea-ice has a profound influence. However, some effects are inconsistent between species and areas, some in(More)
Sexual segregation by micro- or macrohabitat is common in birds, and usually attributed to size-mediated dominance and exclusion of females by larger males, trophic niche divergence or reproductive role specialization. Our study of black-browed albatrosses, Thalassarche melanophrys, and grey-headed albatrosses, T. chrysostoma, revealed an exceptional degree(More)
The relationship between fitness and parental similarity has been dominated by studies of how inbreeding depression lowers fecundity in incestuous matings. A widespread implicit assumption is that adult fitness (reproduction) of individuals born to parents who are not unusually closely related is more or less equal. Examination of three long-lived(More)
In most long-lived animal species, juveniles survive less well than adults. A potential mechanism is inferior foraging skills but longitudinal studies that follow the development of juvenile foraging are needed to test this. We used miniaturized activity loggers to record daily foraging times of juvenile and adult European shags Phalacrocorax aristotelis(More)
but it could not have been accomplished without the guidance, support, and input of the workshop participants and additional contributors that assisted with the development and review of this plan. Contributors included graciously provided access to unpublished data. List of Tables Table 1. Most recent estimates of Laysan and black-footed albatross nesting(More)
Conservationists are continually seeking new strategies to reverse population declines and safeguard against species extinctions. Here we evaluate the potential efficacy of a recently proposed approach to offset a major anthropogenic threat to many marine vertebrates: incidental bycatch in commercial fisheries operations. This new approach, compensatory(More)
During 4- to 8-day periods at sea, half of 2595 dives of three king penguins were more than 50 meters and two dives exceeded 240 meters. The at-sea metabolic rate, estimated from the turnover of tritiated water, was 2.8 times the standard metabolic rate and requires about 2.5 kilograms of squid per day. Ten percent or less of the dives may result in prey(More)
Migratory marine vertebrates move annually across remote oceanic water masses crossing international borders. Many anthropogenic threats such as overfishing, bycatch, pollution or global warming put millions of marine migrants at risk especially during their long-distance movements. Therefore, precise knowledge about these migratory movements to understand(More)
Although albatrosses are paradigms of oceanic specialization, their foraging areas and migration routes when not breeding remain essentially unknown. Our continuous remote tracking of 22 adult gray-headed albatrosses for over 30 bird-years reveals three distinct strategies: (i) Stay in breeding home range; (ii) make return migrations to a specific area of(More)