John P Craven

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A framework is presented for understanding charging processes in low vacuum scanning electron microscopy. We consider the effects of electric fields generated above and below the specimen surface and their effects on various processes taking place in the system. These processes include the formation of an ionic space charge, field-enhanced electron(More)
Partially wetting water droplets with sizes smaller than the capillary length acquire a distinct spherical cap shape controlled by the equilibrium contact angle, which is specific for different substrates and conditions. Images of such droplets in an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) show strong topographic contrast. This contrast across the(More)
The effects caused by an excess quantity of ionized gas molecules within the low vacuum, variable pressure and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) are described with reference to mechanisms by which they can influence imaging conditions. These effects can include specimen charging, recombination and development of space charge. They are(More)
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