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PURPOSE The proper time to commence adjuvant chemotherapy after primary surgery for breast cancer is unknown. An analysis of the International (Ludwig) Breast Cancer Study Group (IBCSG) Trial V at a median follow-up of 11 years suggested that early initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy might improve outcome for premenopausal, node-positive patients whose(More)
Among the many philosophers who hold that causal facts 1 are to be explained in terms of—or more ambitiously, shown to reduce to—facts about what happens, together with facts about the fundamental laws that govern what happens, the clear favorite is an approach that sees counterfactual dependence as the key to such explanation or reduction. The paradigm(More)
If only more geographers would write up their work like this. Jan Nijman has written a scholarly biography of Miami that makes the geographer's art accessible and demonstrable to a wide audience. There is here no new theory , concept, or methodology, and relatively little by way of primary research, but Nijman shows how the geographical imagination can make(More)
BACKGROUND The prognosis of breast cancer in very young women is generally considered to be unfavourable. Therefore, the outcome of adjuvant therapy was analysed in a population of young (<35 years) premenopausal patients treated in four randomised controlled trials. METHODS Between 1978 and 1993 the International Breast Cancer Study Group (IBCSG) treated(More)
BACKGROUND The number of mitoses and, thus, the proliferative capacity of a tumor is one of the most crucial variables for tumor grading. The Ki-67 nuclear antigen may be considered as an alternative to mitotic counts in grading schemes and as a single parameter that can be used in fine-needle aspirates and small biopsies. METHODS Immunohistochemistry(More)
BACKGROUND Although the etiology of endometriosis is unknown, several theories exist, the most popular of which is retrograde menstruation. As endometriosis can only be diagnosed by laparoscopy, neither the incidence (annual occurrence) nor the prevalence (proportion of the population affected) of endometriosis is known. The association between(More)
Clear cell (CRCC), papillary (PRCC) and chromophobe (CHRC) renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are the three most frequent subtypes of RCC. The rate and distribution of their metastatic lesions have not been well documented. We compared metastatic RCC according to subtype and primary tumor characteristics to better understand their behavior and to aid in the(More)
BACKGROUND The effectiveness of clomiphene citrate has been clearly demonstrated in the treatment of sub-fertility associated with oligo-ovulation. The multiple pregnancy rate associated with clomiphene, however, is elevated at approximately 10%. Additional side effects associated with clomiphene use also include hot flashes, mood swings, headaches and(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether the use of luteal phase support improves pregnancy rate (PR) in infertility. DESIGN A meta-analysis of randomized trials of luteal phase support. Search of the National Library of Medicine MEDLINE data base from 1971 using the words luteal, pregnancy, human, and comparative. Bibliography of relevant articles, reviews, and(More)