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BACKGROUND The prognosis of breast cancer in very young women is generally considered to be unfavourable. Therefore, the outcome of adjuvant therapy was analysed in a population of young (<35 years) premenopausal patients treated in four randomised controlled trials. METHODS Between 1978 and 1993 the International Breast Cancer Study Group (IBCSG) treated(More)
BACKGROUND We sought to determine whether a high-risk group could be defined among patients with operable breast cancer in whom a search of occult central nervous system (CNS) metastases was justified. PATIENTS AND METHODS We evaluated data from 9524 women with early breast cancer (42% node-negative) who were randomized in International Breast Cancer(More)
PURPOSE The proper time to commence adjuvant chemotherapy after primary surgery for breast cancer is unknown. An analysis of the International (Ludwig) Breast Cancer Study Group (IBCSG) Trial V at a median follow-up of 11 years suggested that early initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy might improve outcome for premenopausal, node-positive patients whose(More)
Adjuvant chemotherapy-induced amenorrhoea has been shown to be associated with reduced relapses and improved survival for premenopausal breast cancer patients. Amenorrhoea was, therefore, studied to define features of chemotherapy (i.e. duration and timing) and disease-related factors which are associated with its treatment effects. We reviewed data from(More)
BACKGROUND Current information on the prognostic importance of body mass index (BMI) for patients with early breast cancer is based on a variety of equivocal reports. Few have data on BMI in relationship to systemic treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients (6792) were randomized to International Breast Cancer Study Group trials from 1978 to 1993, studying(More)
Clear cell (CRCC), papillary (PRCC) and chromophobe (CHRC) renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are the three most frequent subtypes of RCC. The rate and distribution of their metastatic lesions have not been well documented. We compared metastatic RCC according to subtype and primary tumor characteristics to better understand their behavior and to aid in the(More)
BACKGROUND The risks of multiple pregnancy and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) are increased in women with clomiphene resistance WHO group 2 dysfunction undergoing ovulation induction as well as the risk of spontaneous abortion if conception takes place. Semi-purified preparations of FSH have been developed in an effort to reduce the impact of(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether the use of luteal phase support improves pregnancy rate (PR) in infertility. DESIGN A meta-analysis of randomized trials of luteal phase support. Search of the National Library of Medicine MEDLINE data base from 1971 using the words luteal, pregnancy, human, and comparative. Bibliography of relevant articles, reviews, and(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical practice guidelines for the management of breast carcinoma were introduced in Australia in October, 1995. This article describes the management of early-stage breast carcinoma both before and after the introduction of these guidelines. METHODS All cases of early breast carcinoma that were diagnosed over the same 6-month period in 1995(More)
Educating and training tomorrow's surgeons has evolved to become a sophisticated and expensive exercise involving a wide range of learning methods, opportunities and stakeholders. Several factors influence this process, prompting those who provide such programmes to identify these important considerations and develop and implement appropriate responses. The(More)