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X-linked immunodeficient (Xid) mice carry a Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) mutation and exhibit a selective failure to produce antibodies against bacterial capsular polysaccharides. Studies in vitro point to a fundamental survival defect of Xid B cells after receptor cross-linking by thymus-independent type-2 (TI-2) antigen because B cells undergo apoptosis(More)
Species belonging to higher trophic levels are particularly vulnerable to habitat loss and consequential host population declines, but detection of effects depends on observation scale. We investigated the effects of habitat and host availability at multiple scales on parasitoids of early successional saproxylic beetles in middle boreal Sweden, where(More)
The aim of our study was to assess the efficacy of extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) in chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Eleven patients with chronic cutaneous GVHD were studied. Four had mucosal involvement and five had pulmonary involvement. All had failed to improve on first- and second-line therapy. Three patients received ECP alone; the(More)
Patients with limited cardiopulmonary reserve are at risk of mortality and morbidity after major surgery. Augmentation of oxygen delivery index (DO2I) with i.v. fluids and inotropes (goal-directed therapy, GDT) has been shown to reduce postoperative mortality and morbidity in high-risk patients. Concerns regarding cardiac complications associated with fluid(More)
The distributions of 8 peptides were studied in the 4 major segmental levels (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral) of the spinal cord in 52 neurologically normal cases. Similar regions from 36 cases of motor neurone disease (MND) were compared using the same procedures to determine possible changes in the distribution of peptides in areas associated with(More)
B cells, after mutating their Ig B-region genes in germinal centres (GC), undergo apoptosis, unless they receive antigen-dependent selection signals. The signals appear to be delivered by GC T cells, require CD40 ligand expression and may induce differentiation to memory cells. Cultured GC B cells are prevented from entering apoptosis by ligating their(More)
The surface phenotype of neoplastic plasma cells from peripheral blood of plasma cell leukaemia patients and bone marrow of patients with myelomatosis was investigated with two monoclonal antibody panels including 50 selected from the B cell panel of the IVth International Workshop on Leucocyte Differentiation Antigens. The majority of myelomas expressed(More)
The biology of normal plasma cells and the pathophysiology of human multiple myeloma remain poorly understood. Functional assays are scarce and at present cell phenotyping is providing the most information about how human plasma cells may behave. Three different types of human plasma cells: normal, fresh neoplastic myeloma cells and plasma cell lines, have(More)
Fresh bone marrow from 43 cases of myeloma and three cases of plasma cell leukaemia has been phenotyped both by indirect immune-rosetting and, on fixed cytospin preparations, by indirect immunofluorescence. Both clustered and unclustered B cell associated antibodies from the IIIrd International Workshop on Human Leucocyte Differentiation Antigens were used.(More)