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In this review, we give an overview of recent literature on the structure and stability of unimolecular G-rich quadruplex structures that are relevant to drug design and for in vivo function. The unifying theme in this review is energetics. The thermodynamic stability of quadruplexes has not been studied in the same detail as DNA and RNA duplexes, and there(More)
Single-stranded guanosine-rich oligodeoxyribonucleotides (GROs) have a propensity to form quadruplex structures that are stabilized by G-quartets. In addition to intense speculation about the role of G-quartet formation in vivo, there is considerable interest in the therapeutic potential of quadruplex oligonucleotides as aptamers or non-antisense(More)
The structure of human telomere DNA is of intense interest because of its role in the biology of both cancer and aging. The sequence [5'-AGGG(TTAGGG)3] has been used as a model for telomere DNA in both NMR and X-ray crystallographic studies, the results of which show dramatically different structures. In Na+ solution, NMR revealed an antiparallel(More)
Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMSs) are frequently characterized by bone marrow involvement. Recently, we reported that human RMS cells express the CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) and postulated a role for the CXCR4 stromal-derived factor (SDF)-1 axis in the metastasis of RMS cells to bone marrow. Because RMS cells also express the tyrosine kinase receptor c-MET, the(More)
Mutations occur at four specific sites in the hTERT promoter in >75% of glioblastomas and melanomas, but the mechanism by which the mutations affect gene expression remains unexplained. We report biophysical computational studies that show that the hTERT promoter sequence forms a novel G-quadruplex structure consisting of three contiguous, stacked parallel(More)
The remarkable structural polymorphism of quadruplex-forming sequences has been a considerable impediment in the elucidation of quadruplex folds. Sequence modifications have commonly been used to perturb and purportedly select a particular form out of the ensemble of folds for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or X-ray crystallographic analysis. Here we(More)
In human cancers, loss of PTEN, stabilization of hypoxia inducible factor-1α, and activation of Ras and AKT converge to increase the activity of a key regulator of glycolysis, 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFKFB3). This enzyme synthesizes fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (F26BP), which is an activator of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase, a key step of glycolysis. Previously,(More)
Choline kinase-α expression and activity are increased in multiple human neoplasms as a result of growth factor stimulation and activation of cancer-related signaling pathways. The product of choline kinase-α, phosphocholine, serves as an essential metabolic reservoir for the production of phosphatidylcholine, the major phospholipid constituent of membranes(More)
Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are widely used to perturb the conformations of nucleic acids, including G-quadruplexes. The mechanism by which PEG alters G-quadruplex conformation is poorly understood. We describe here studies designed to determine how PEG and other co-solutes affect the conformation of the human telomeric quadruplex. Osmotic stress studies(More)