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Susac's syndrome (SS) is an immune-mediated endotheliopathy that affects the microvasculature of the brain, retina, and inner ear. SS responds well to immunosuppressive therapies when treatment is prompt, aggressive, and sustained. Striking similarities exist between SS and dermatomyositis (DM), regarding immunopathogenesis, natural history, and treatment(More)
BACKGROUND Susac syndrome (SS) is a self-limited syndrome, presumably autoimmune, consisting of a clinical triad of encephalopathy, branch retinal artery occlusions, and hearing loss. All three elements of the triad may not be present or recognized, and MR imaging is often necessary to establish the diagnosis. OBJECTIVE To determine the spectrum of(More)
Susac's Syndrome (SS) consists of the clinical triad of encephalopathy, branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO), and hearing loss (HL). It is an autoimmune endotheliopathy affecting the precapillary arterioles of the brain, retina, and inner ear (cochlea and semicircular canals). The age range extends from 7 to 72 years, but young women (20-40) are most(More)
Susac's syndrome (SS) consists of the clinical triad of encephalopathy, branch retinal artery occlusions (BRAO) and hearing loss. It is due to a microangiopathy affecting the precapillary arterioles of the brain, retina, and inner ear (cochlea and semicircular canals). Women are more commonly affected than men (3:1); the age of onset ranges from 9 to 58(More)
INTRODUCTION Susac Syndrome (SS) consists of the triad of encephalopathy, branch retinal artery occlusion, and hearing loss. It is an autoimmune endotheliopathy that primarily affects young women. Two funduscopic findings, Gass plaques (GP) and arteriolar wall hyperfluorescence (AWH), have recently been described and are not only useful in making the SS(More)
In three patients, intractable hiccups occurred as part of the symptomatology of multiple sclerosis. In one patient intractable hiccups were the presenting complaint, and in another patient exacerbations of symptoms were almost always heralded by intractable hiccups. Intractable hiccups occur in a variety of diseases, including many that affect the(More)