John O'Halloran

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Five major human toxic syndromes caused by the consumption of shellfish contaminated by algal toxins are presented. The increased risks to humans of shellfish toxicity from the prevalence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) may be a consequence of large-scale ecological changes from anthropogenic activities, especially increased eutrophication, marine transport(More)
AIMS To evaluate the diversity and antimicrobial activity present among Pseudovibrio spp. isolated from marine sponges. METHODS AND RESULTS Seventy-three bacterial isolates from the marine sponges Polymastia boletiformis, Axinella dissimilis and Haliclona simulans were identified as Pseudovibrio spp. using phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences.(More)
AIMS Despite the frequent isolation of endospore-formers from marine sponges, little is known about the diversity and characterization of individual isolates. The main aims of this study were to isolate and characterize the spore-forming bacteria from the marine sponge Haliclona simulans and to examine their potential as a source for bioactive compounds. (More)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the overall sensitivity and applicability of a number of bioassays representing multiple trophic levels, for the preliminary ecotoxicological screening (Tier I) of estuarine sediments. Chemical analyses were conducted on sediments from all sampling sites to assist in interpreting results. As sediment is an(More)
Surface sediment from three polluted sites within Cork Harbour, Ireland, and from a relatively clean reference site were collected and analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs), organotins (OTs), and heavy metals. PAHs were determined to be the(More)
Levels of cortisol in fish blood provide quantitative information on the degree of stress induced by a variety of stressors. It is also useful in describing the social status of individual fish within groups. The commercial production of radioimmunoassay (RIA) kits, such as the DPC Coat-A-Count radioimmunoassay kit, has considerably reduced the effort(More)
The alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) or Comet assay was employed to test the potential of surficial sediment collected from Cork Harbor, Ireland, to induce DNA damage in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) in a laboratory exposure experiment. Turbot were exposed for 21 days to field-collected sediment from Cork Harbor and from a relatively clean(More)
Microcystins are produced by bloom-forming cyanobacteria and pose significant health and ecological problems. In this study we show that zebra mussels respond differently to different strains of Microcystis aeruginosa, and that a highly toxic strain causes zebra mussels to produce large quantities of mucous pseudofaeces, 'pseudodiarrhoea', that are(More)
The IncJ group of enterobacterial mobile genetic elements, which include R391, R392, R705, R997 and pMERPH, have been shown to be site-specific integrating elements encoding variable antibiotic and heavy metal resistance genes. They insert into a specific 17-bp site located in the prfC gene, encoding peptide release factor 3, in Escherichia coli and other(More)
(1) Habitat influences on trout distribution and diet at a reach scale were analysed over a single winter in a conifer-afforested catchment in Ireland, in an area subject to very low levels of atmospheric pollution. (2) A total of 234 salmonids were sampled from which 1194 individual prey items were recovered. Salmonids were sampled at eleven sites over a 2(More)