John O'Donnell

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The conservation of sleep across all animal species suggests that sleep serves a vital function. We here report that sleep has a critical function in ensuring metabolic homeostasis. Using real-time assessments of tetramethylammonium diffusion and two-photon imaging in live mice, we show that natural sleep or anesthesia are associated with a 60% increase in(More)
Astrocyte Ca2+ signals in awake behaving mice are widespread, coordinated and differ fundamentally from the locally restricted Ca2+ transients observed ex vivo and in anesthetized animals. Here we show that the synchronized release of norepinephrine (NE) from locus coeruleus (LC) projections throughout the cerebral cortex mediate long-ranging Ca2+ signals(More)
Hydra is a computer hardware description language that integrates several kinds of software tool (simulation, netlist generation and timing analysis) within a single circuit specification. The design language is inherently concurrent, and it offers black box abstraction and general design patterns that simplify the design of circuits with regular structure.(More)
Cellular abnormalities are not limited to motor neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). There are numerous observations of astrocyte dysfunction in both humans with ALS and in SOD1(G93A) rodents, a widely studied ALS model. The present study therapeutically targeted astrocyte replacement in this model via transplantation of human Glial-Restricted(More)
Any parallel programming language provides a model of par-allelism, and one can write a program directly in the language, accepting the xed given model. We propose an alternative methodology: the program is derived in a sequence of steps, where each step incorporates just one decision, and is based on a speciic model of parallelism, called an abstract(More)
After traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), there is an opportunity for preserving function by attenuating secondary cell loss. Astrocytes play crucial roles in the adult CNS and are responsible for the vast majority of glutamate buffering, potentially preventing excitotoxic loss of neurons and oligodendrocytes. We examined spatial and temporal changes in(More)
The astrocyte glutamate transporter, GLT1, is responsible for the vast majority of glutamate uptake in the adult central nervous system (CNS), thereby regulating extracellular glutamate homeostasis and preventing excitotoxicity. Glutamate dysregulation plays a central role in outcome following traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). To determine the role of(More)