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Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder with an average onset age of 60 years. In the United States, approximately one million persons suffer from PD, and there are 60,000 newly diagnosed cases every year. The estimated cost of PD to society is $27 billion per year. Based on United States Census Bureau projections, it is(More)
Freezing of gait (FoG) is a unique and disabling clinical phenomenon characterised by brief episodes of inability to step or by extremely short steps that typically occur on initiating gait or on turning while walking. Patients with FoG, which is a feature of parkinsonian syndromes, show variability in gait metrics between FoG episodes and a substantial(More)
Selection of movement in normal subjects has been shown to involve the premotor, supplementary motor, anterior cingulate, posterior parietal, and dorsolateral prefrontal areas. In Parkinson's disease (PD), the primary pathological change is degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic projections, and this is associated with difficulty in initiating(More)
Parkinson's disease is a common disorder that leads to motor and cognitive disability. We performed a genome-wide association study of 2,000 individuals with Parkinson's disease (cases) and 1,986 unaffected controls from the NeuroGenetics Research Consortium (NGRC). We confirmed associations with SNCA and MAPT, replicated an association with GAK (using data(More)
OBJECTIVE Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) exerts potent trophic influence on midbrain dopaminergic neurons. This randomized controlled clinical trial was designed to confirm initial clinical benefits observed in a small, open-label trial using intraputamenal (Ipu) infusion of recombinant human GDNF (liatermin). METHODS Thirty-four PD(More)
We conducted an exploratory study of young-onset Parkinson's disease (YOPD) to examine occupational and environmental factors associated with disease risk. This case-control study included 63 YOPD patients (diagnosis on or before age 50); controls (n = 68) were diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis. Crude odds ratios (ORs) were computed to identify exposure(More)
BACKGROUND In an open-label phase 1 trial, gene delivery of the trophic factor neurturin via an adeno-associated type-2 vector (AAV2) was well tolerated and seemed to improve motor function in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of AAV2-neurturin in a double-blind, phase 2 randomised trial. METHODS We did(More)
1. This study investigates the effects of parkinsonism and of dopamine replacement therapy (levodopa) on scaling the magnitude of automatic postural responses based on sensory feedback and on predictive central set. Surface reactive torques and electromyographic (EMG) activity in response to backward surface translations were compared in patients with(More)
The postural adaptation impairments of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) suggest that the basal ganglia may be important for quickly modifying muscle activation patterns when the direction of perturbation or stance conditions suddenly change. It is unknown whether their particular instability to backward postural perturbations is due to specific(More)