John Neil Cape

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Routine measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air have shown that average concentrations are very much smaller than those used in laboratory experiments designed to study the effects of VOCs on plants. However, maximum hourly concentrations of some VOCs can be 100 times larger than the average, even in rural air. Experimental studies have(More)
The current critical level for ammonia (CLE(NH3)) in Europe is set at 8mug NH(3) m(-3) as an annual average concentration. Recent evidence has shown specific effects of ammonia (NH(3)) on plant community composition (a true ecological effect) at much smaller concentrations. The methods used in setting a CLE(NH3) are reviewed, and the available evidence(More)
Numerous passive samplers based on the "Palmes-tube" have been developed for ambient air monitoring. In each case, the diffusion path length and/or cross-sectional area are modified to achieve the desired sampling rate. "Tube-type" samplers are low sensitivity samplers suitable for long-term monitoring, whereas the "badge-type" samplers have faster sampling(More)
Over the last two decades significant effort has been dedicated to understanding the fate and transport of pesticides in surface water and groundwater and to use this understanding in the development of environmental policy and regulation. However, there have been few studies that have investigated the relationships between pesticides and climate change,(More)
The regulation of the emissions of 'traditional' primary air pollutants (fluorides, sulfur dioxide) has changed the pattern of exposure of ecological systems, with greatly reduced exposure close to sources, but with a smaller effect in some remote areas. Measurements show that recovery is occurring at some sites, in fresh water chemistry (reduced acidity)(More)
  • J N Cape
  • The Science of the total environment
  • 2008
This paper reviews current understanding of the sources and sinks of ozone in the troposphere, recent studies of long-term trends, and the factors which have to be taken into consideration when constructing and interpreting future models of ozone concentration. The factors controlling surface O(3) concentrations are discussed initially to provide a basis(More)
The concentrations and input/output fluxes of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) were measured in all relevant media for one year at a 0.86 km2 upland conifer plantation and moorland catchment in SW Scotland (n > 380 separate samples analyzed). Annual wet precipitation to the catchment was 2.5 and 0.4 m for rain and cloud, respectively. TCA input to the catchment(More)
The chemical processes responsible for production of photochemical oxidants within the troposphere have been the subject of laboratory and field study throughout the last three decades. During the same period, models to simulate the atmospheric chemistry, transport and deposition of ozone (O(3)) from individual urban sources and from regions have been(More)
Bimonthly integrated measurements of NO2 and NH3 have been made over one year at distances up to 10 m away from the edges of roads across Scotland, using a stratified sampling scheme in terms of road traffic density and background N deposition. The rate of decrease in gas concentrations away from the edge of the roads was rapid, with concentrations falling(More)
During the summer of 1986, three year-classes of foliage were sampled from approximately 30-year-old Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] trees at 12 sites from S. W. Germany to N. Scotland. At sites in Germany, where trees were showing symptoms of ‘decline’, samples were taken from trees with ‘good’ crown condition and ‘poor’ crown conditon. The(More)