John N. Fain

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The purpose of this study was to examine the source of adipokines released by the visceral and sc adipose tissues of obese humans. Human adipose tissue incubated in primary culture for 48 h released more prostaglandin E(2), IL-8, and IL-6 than adiponectin, whereas the release of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 and hepatocyte growth factor was less than(More)
Growth hormone [GH] administration results in a reduction in adiposity of humans that is attributed to stimulation of lipolysis. We examined the effect of direct addition of human GH, in both the absence and presence of dexamethasone [Dex], as well as that of interferon beta on lipolysis by omental adipose tissue explants from obese women incubated for 48h(More)
This paper considers the role of putative adipokines that might be involved in the enhanced inflammatory response of human adipose tissue seen in obesity. Inflammatory adipokines [IL-6, IL-10, ACE, TGFbeta1, TNFalpha, IL-1beta, PAI-1, and IL-8] plus one anti-inflammatory [IL-10] adipokine were identified whose circulating levels as well as in vitro release(More)
The activation of phospholipase C (PLC) was examined in membranes of rat cerebral cortex simultaneously exposed to monoaminergic receptor and muscarinic receptor agonists after the treatment of membranes with two alkylating agents, N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (100 microM EEDQ) and propylbenzilylcholine (10 nM PrBCM). Treatment of(More)
Muscarinic cholinergic and alpha 1-adrenoceptor-mediated stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis in rat cerebral cortex were compared by measuring carbachol- and noradrenaline-induced accumulation of various intermediates of the phosphoinositide cycle. Unlike carbachol, noradrenaline in the presence of guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) did not(More)
Rabbit brain cortical membranes incubated with carbachol in the presence of GTP gamma S show a marked increase in the degradation of exogenous phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. This activation of phospholipase C is dependent on the presence of deoxycholate and maximal at 0.8-1 mM deoxycholate. There is negligible activation by carbachol alone but in(More)
Muscarinic cholinergic receptor function in rat brain cortex was characterized by performing binding assays with [3H](-)quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H]QNB) in parallel with assays of phospholipase C (PLC) activation by carbachol using membrane preparations and exogenous [3H]-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate ([3H]PIP2). Competitive binding studies(More)
The authors present a classification of trauma to the cranial base, based on observation in 80 cases. There are five types. Type I : involves only the anterior wall of the frontal sinus. Type II : involves the face (craniofacial disjunction of the Lefort II type or crush face) and extend upward to the cranial base and, in occurency, to the anterior wall of(More)
We have studied the effects of fluoride, guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) and carbachol on phospholipase C and polyphosphoinositide synthesis. The experimental system consisted of membranes from rat brain cortex, with exogenous [3H]phosphatidylinositol ([3H]PtdIns) as substrate. In such systems, we have not found evidence to support carbachol(More)
BACKGROUND The present studies were designed to investigate the changes in gene expression during in vitro incubation of human visceral omental adipose tissue explants as well as fat cells and nonfat cells derived from omental fat. METHODS Adipose tissue was obtained from extremely obese women undergoing bariatric surgery. Explants of the tissue as well(More)