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OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI on pregnancy outcomes. METHODS Pregnancy cohort recruited pregnancies between 16 and 18 weeks. BMI evaluated underweight, BMI<18.5, normal, BMI 18.5-25, overweight BMI 25-30, and obese BMI>30 women. RESULTS Pre-pregnancy BMI classified 331 women as underweight (11.7%), 1982 normal (69.9%),(More)
High Performance Computing architectures are expected to change dramatically in the next decade as power and cooling constraints limit increases in microprocessor clock speeds. Consequently computer companies are dramatically increasing on-chip parallelism to improve performance. The traditional doubling of clock speeds every 18-24 months is being replaced(More)
To develop unilateral, chronically elevated intraocular pressure in rats, episcleral veins were injected with hypertonic saline and the intraocular pressure was monitored with a Tono-Pen XL tonometer. Histologic analyses of eyes with differing degrees and durations of intraocular pressure elevation were performed to ascertain the effects of these pressures(More)
Slowing rates of global biodiversity loss requires preventing species extinctions. Here we pinpoint centers of imminent extinction, where highly threatened species are confined to single sites. Within five globally assessed taxa (i.e., mammals, birds, selected reptiles, amphibians, and conifers), we find 794 such species, three times the number recorded as(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare glycemic control and neonatal outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) treated with metformin vs. insulin. STUDY DESIGN Women with GDM not controlled with diet and exercise were randomized to metformin (n = 32) or insulin (n = 31). The levels of glycemic control as well as maternal/neonatal complications were(More)
PURPOSE To characterize retinal functional consequences of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in a rat model of experimental glaucoma. METHODS Unilateral elevation of IOP was produced by hypertonic saline injection into an episcleral vein in 20 adult male Brown-Norway rats. IOP was measured in both eyes of awake animals four to five times per week. After(More)
PURPOSE The temporal series of molecular events that occur in dying retinal ganglion cells is poorly understood. We have examined the change in expression of a normally-expressed ganglion cell marker gene, Thy1, relative to the kinetics of cell loss caused by acute and chronic damaging stimuli. METHODS For acute experiments, mice were subjected to optic(More)
PURPOSE In glaucoma, the optic nerve head (ONH) is the principal site of initial axonal injury, and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the predominant risk factor. However, the initial responses of the ONH to elevated IOP are unknown. Here the authors use a rat glaucoma model to characterize ONH gene expression changes associated with early optic nerve(More)
Optic nerve head (ONH) blood flow may be associated with glaucoma development. A reliable method to quantify ONH blood flow could provide insight into the vascular component of glaucoma pathophysiology. Using ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography (OCT), we developed a new 3D angiography algorithm called split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare perinatal outcomes in patients at term (37 weeks) in whom the decision-incision time for cesarean delivery was due to suspected fetal distress. STUDY DESIGN All parturients who underwent cesarean delivery primarily for possible fetal distress during a three-year period were identified retrospectively. Student's t test and the chi 2(More)