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Can people feel worse off as the options they face increase? The present studies suggest that some people--maximizers--can. Study 1 reported a Maximization Scale, which measures individual differences in desire to maximize. Seven samples revealed negative correlations between maximization and happiness, optimism, self-esteem, and life satisfaction, and(More)
The ability to flexibly respond to changes in the environment is critical for adaptive behavior. Reversal learning (RL) procedures test adaptive response updating when contingencies are altered. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain areas that support specific RL components. We compared neural responses to RL and initial learning(More)
A missense mutation in the ob gene causes leptin deficiency and morbid obesity. Leptin replacement to three adults with this mutation normalized body weight and eating behavior. Because the neural circuits mediating these changes were unknown, we paired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with presentation of food cues to these subjects. During(More)
Individuals who abuse methamphetamine (MA) perform at levels below those of healthy controls on tests that require cognitive control. As cognitive control deficits may influence the success of treatment for addiction, we sought to help clarify the neural correlates of this deficit. MA-dependent (n=10, abstinent 4-7 days) and control subjects (n=18)(More)
Neuroeconomic methods combine behavioral economic experiments to parameterize aspects of reward-related decision-making with neuroimaging techniques to record corresponding brain activity. In this introductory article to the current special issue, we propose that neuroeconomics is a potential bridge for translational research in psychiatry for several(More)
Animal studies indicate that different functional networks (FNs), each with a unique timecourse, may overlap at common brain regions. For understanding how different FNs overlap in the human brain and how the timecourses of overlapping FNs are modulated by cognitive tasks, we applied spatial independent component analysis (sICA) to functional magnetic(More)
BACKGROUND Methamphetamine (MA) abusers have cognitive deficits, abnormal metabolic activity and structural deficits in limbic and paralimbic cortices, and reduced hippocampal volume. The links between cognitive impairment and these cerebral abnormalities are not established. METHODS We assessed cerebral glucose metabolism with [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucose(More)
BACKGROUND When nicotine-dependent human subjects abstain from cigarette smoking, they exhibit deficits in working memory. An understanding of the neural substrates of such impairments may help to understand how nicotine affects cognition. Our aim, therefore, was to identify abnormalities in the circuitry that mediates working memory in nicotine-dependent(More)
BACKGROUND The load theory of selective attention hypothesizes that distractor interference is suppressed after perceptual processing (i.e., in the later stage of central processing) at low perceptual load of the central task, but in the early stage of perceptual processing at high perceptual load. Consistently, studies on the neural correlates of attention(More)