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BACKGROUND In cigarette smokers, the most commonly reported areas of brain activation during visual cigarette cue exposure are the prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and visual cortices. We sought to determine changes in brain activity in response to cigarette cues when smokers actively resist craving. METHODS Forty-two tobacco-dependent smokers underwent(More)
Impulsive behavior is thought to reflect a traitlike characteristic that can have broad consequences for an individual's success and well-being, but its neurobiological basis remains elusive. Although striatal dopamine D₂-like receptors have been linked with impulsive behavior and behavioral inhibition in rodents, a role for D₂-like receptor function in(More)
Some reports indicate that cigarette smoking can help smokers focus attention, even when they have not abstained from smoking for a substantial period of time (eg, >1 h). Understanding the mechanisms by which smoking affects attention may help in designing smoking cessation treatments. Thirteen nonsmokers and nine smokers participated in two tests of blood(More)
Naltrexone has repeatedly been shown to reduce drinking in alcohol-dependent patients. Previous clinical research suggests that naltrexone may be more effective at reducing drinking among patients with high levels of alcohol craving at the beginning of treatment. In addition, laboratory studies suggest that naltrexone may be more efficacious among patients(More)
UNLABELLED Methylphenidate (MPH) is an effective symptomatic treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the mechanisms of its therapeutic action have not been fully elucidated. To address this issue, we assessed the effects of discontinuation of chronic MPH treatment on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in ADHD patients. METHODS(More)
While methamphetamine addiction has been associated with both impulsivity and striatal dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptor deficits, human studies have not directly linked the latter two entities. We therefore compared methamphetamine-dependent and healthy control subjects using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (version 11, BIS-11) and positron emission tomography(More)
Prior research suggests that abrupt initiation of abstinence from cigarette smoking reduces neural cognitive efficiency. When cognitive efficiency is high, processing speed and accuracy are maximized with minimal allocation of cognitive resources. The study presented here tested the effects of resumption of smoking on cognitive response conflict after(More)
BACKGROUND Methamphetamine (MA) abusers have cognitive deficits, abnormal metabolic activity and structural deficits in limbic and paralimbic cortices, and reduced hippocampal volume. The links between cognitive impairment and these cerebral abnormalities are not established. METHODS We assessed cerebral glucose metabolism with [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucose(More)
The present study was designed to examine the effect of cigarette smoking and withdrawal on working memory. Participants included 15 smokers and 22 matched non-smokers. For both groups the N-Back Task (of working memory) was administered in two test blocks on each of two days. On one day, smokers were tested after >or=13 h abstinence; on the other day,(More)
BACKGROUND When nicotine-dependent human subjects abstain from cigarette smoking, they exhibit deficits in working memory. An understanding of the neural substrates of such impairments may help to understand how nicotine affects cognition. Our aim, therefore, was to identify abnormalities in the circuitry that mediates working memory in nicotine-dependent(More)