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Studies carried out over the past few years provide strong support for the idea that Igα–Igβ-containing complexes such as the pre-B-cell receptor and the B-cell receptor can signal independently of ligand engagement, and this has been termed tonic signalling. In this Review, I discuss recent literature that is relevant to the potential mechanisms by which(More)
Expression of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-containing signaling proteins is normally restricted to hematopoietic tissues. The basal activity of ITAM-containing proteins is mediated through negative regulation by coreceptors restricted to hematopoietic tissues. We have identified an ITAM signaling domain encoded within the env gene(More)
The advent of therapies that specifically target the B-lymphocyte lineage in human disease has rejuvenated interest in the mechanistic biology by which B cells mediate autoimmunity. B cells have a multitude of effector functions including production of self-reactive antibodies, ability to present antigen to T lymphocytes in the context of costimulation,(More)
Intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) 1/CD54 plays an important role in T cell dependent B cell activation and for function of B lymphocytes as antigen-presenting cells. ICAM-1 expression is upregulated as a consequence of B lymphocyte antigen receptor (BCR) signaling, thereby serving to render antigen-stimulated B cells more receptive to T cell-mediated(More)
The survival of transitional and mature B cells requires both the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) and BLyS receptor 3 (BR3), which suggests that these receptors send signals that are nonredundant or that engage in crosstalk with each other. Here we show that BCR signaling induced production of the nonclassical transcription factor NF-κB pathway substrate(More)
TNF receptor superfamily members, such as CD40 and the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), regulate many aspects of B cell differentiation and activation. TRAF6 is an intracellular signaling adaptor molecule for these receptors, but its role in B cells has not been clarified by previous genetic approaches, as the systemic deletion of the TRAF6 gene results in(More)
Transitional B cells mark the crucial link between bone-marrow (BM) immature and peripheral mature B cells. Examination reveals unexpected heterogeneity, consisting of contiguous subsets with phenotypic and functional differences. Data point to the late transitional B-cell stage as a crucial juncture at which developing B cells gain access to splenic(More)
In adult mammals, bone marrow pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells generate B lymphoid-specified progeny that progress through a series of well-characterized stages before generating B-cell receptor expressing B lymphocytes. These functionally immature B lymphocytes then migrate to the spleen wherein they differentiate through transitional stages into(More)
The adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) is essential for the development of antibody-secreting plasma cells. B cells induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to differentiate into plasma cells exhibit a nonclassical UPR reported to anticipate endoplasmic reticulum stress prior to immunoglobulin production. Here we demonstrate that activation of a(More)
Neurotensin (NT) is a neuropeptide that is important in a variety of biological processes such as signal transduction and cell growth. NT effects are mediated by a single class of cell-surface receptors, known as neurotensin receptors (NTRs), which exhibit structural features of the G-protein-coupled receptors superfamily. We investigated NTR signalling(More)