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This article reviews the influence of machine milking on udder health. The main risks are transmission and penetration of pathogens during milking. Pathogens can be transmitted via the hands, cloths, and liners. Irregular fluctuations in the vacuum can cause penetration of mastitis pathogens into or through the teat canal. Such fluctuations are caused by(More)
Machine milking has changed enormously in the past decades. The simple milking machine developed at the end of the nineteenth century has become a complex appliance which removes milk from the udder in a fast and efficient way. There is no doubt about the importance of a well functioning milking machine as regards milk quality and udder health. This article(More)
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