John-Michael Gamble

Learn More
BACKGROUND For outpatients with pneumonia, guidelines recommend empiric antibiotics and some suggest macrolides are preferred agents. We hypothesized that both guideline-concordant antibiotics and macrolides would be associated with reduced mortality. METHODS All outpatients with pneumonia assessed at 7 Emergency Departments in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada(More)
OBJECTIVE Our goal was to determine the association between random admission hyperglycemia and new diagnosis of diabetes after discharge in patients hospitalized with pneumonia. METHODS Clinical data, including the Pneumonia Severity Index, were prospectively collected on all 2124 patients without diabetes admitted with pneumonia to 6 hospitals in(More)
AIMS This was to assess the recurrence of dental caries and the affecting factors after dental surgery for early childhood caries (ECC). STUDY DESIGN A retrospective study completed in a private dental practice with surgical facilities. METHODS Dental charts were reviewed for 269 patients under 6-years-old who had comprehensive dental care under general(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the use patterns of metformin-based antidiabetic regimens in patients with type 2 diabetes and to identify predictors of initiating metformin monotherapy. METHODS By using administrative databases from Alberta, Canada, we identified all metformin users ages 65 years and older between 1998 and 2010. Rates of metformin use, either(More)
BACKGROUND Canada's Common Drug Review was implemented to provide publicly funded drug plans (provincial and federal) with a transparent, rigorous and consistent approach for assessing the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of new drugs. We compared uptake of drug coverage across jurisdictions before and after the implementation of the Common(More)
OBJECTIVE We aimed to evaluate the changes in cardiovascular-related health care utilization (drug therapies, hospitalizations) and mortality for the diabetic population during a 9-year period in Saskatchewan, Canada. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We identified annual diabetes prevalence rates for people aged >or=30 years between 1993 and 2001 from the(More)
BACKGROUND Access to medical care differs between urban and rural residents, but the magnitude of these differences and whether they affect outcomes are unknown. We aimed to determine whether outcomes differ for patients with incident heart failure (HF) by urban-rural status. METHODS AND RESULTS This cohort study used administrative data from Alberta,(More)
BACKGROUND patients with hypoxemia (blood oxygen saturation <90%) are usually hospitalized, although validated criteria (eg, the Pneumonia Severity Index [PSI]) suggest outpatient treatment is safe. We sought evidence to support or refute the practice. METHODS all patients in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada with pneumonia assessed at any of 7 emergency(More)
OBJECTIVE Drug exposure misclassification may occur in administrative databases when individuals obtain nonreimbursed drugs by paying "out-of-pocket" or via alternative drug coverage plans. We examined the apparent association between oral antidiabetic therapy and mortality by simulating the effects of restrictive drug coverage policies. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND The relationship between spontaneous admission hypoglycemia and mortality in patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia is unclear. METHODS From 2000 to 2002, clinical data were prospectively collected on all patients with community-acquired pneumonia who were admitted to all 6 hospitals in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Patients with(More)