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Vertebrate/3-catenin and Drosophila Armadillo share structural similarities suggesting that fl-catenin, like Armadillo, has a developmental signaling function. Both proteins are present as components of cell adherens junctions, but accumulate in the cytoplasm upon Wingless/Wnt signaling, fl-Catenin has axis-inducing properties like Wnt when injected into(More)
In many situations, organisms respond to stimuli by altering the activity of large numbers of genes. Among these, certain ones are likely to control the phenotype while others play a secondary role or are passively altered without directly affecting the phenotype. Identifying the controlling genes has proven difficult. However, in a few instances, it has(More)
Fusarium head blight (FHB) reduces crop yield and results in contamination of grains with trichothecene mycotoxins. We previously showed that mitochondria play a critical role in the toxicity of a type B trichothecene. Here, we investigated the direct effects of type A and type B trichothecenes on mitochondrial translation and membrane integrity in(More)
On interaction with the intestine, the mycotoxin ochratoxin A is know to cause rapid inflammation, diarrhea, and increased bacterial translocation. All these effects are consistent with a decrease in epithelial barrier function. However, this has not been shown directly. We determined that ochratoxin A is able to reduce the barrier properties of the model(More)
Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are toxic because they bind to 28S rRNA and depurinate a specific adenine residue from the α-sarcin/ricin loop (SRL), thereby inhibiting protein synthesis. Shiga-like toxins (Stx1 and Stx2), produced by Escherichia coli, are RIPs that cause outbreaks of foodborne diseases with significant morbidity and mortality. Ricin,(More)
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