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Little is known of the molecular mechanisms that trigger oligodendrocyte death and demyelination in many acute central nervous system insults. Since oligodendrocytes express functional alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)/kainate-type glutamate receptors, we examined the possibility that oligodendrocyte death can be mediated by(More)
Transplantation approaches using cellular bridges, fetal central nervous system cells, fibroblasts expressing neurotrophin-3 (ref. 6), hybridoma cells expressing inhibitory protein-blocking antibodies, or olfactory nerves ensheathing glial cells transplanted into the acutely injured spinal cord have produced axonal regrowth or functional benefits.(More)
Cell death was examined by studying the spinal cords of rats subjected to traumatic insults of mild to moderate severity. Within minutes after mild weight drop impact (a 10 gm weight falling 6.25 mm), neurons in the immediate impact area showed a loss of cytoplasmic Nissl substances. Over the next 7 d, this lesion area expanded and cavitated. Terminal(More)
We analyze a randomized experiment in which 14,000 tax filers in H&R Block offices in St. Louis received matches of zero, 20 percent, or 50 percent of IRA contributions. Take-up rates were 3 percent, 8 percent, and 14 percent, respectively. Among contributors, contributions, excluding the match, averaged $765 in the control group and $1100 in the match(More)
Demyelination contributes to the loss of function consequent to central nervous system (CNS) injury. Enhanced remyelination through transplantation of myelin-producing cells may offer a pragmatic approach to restoring meaningful neurological function. An unlimited source of cells suitable for such transplantation therapy can be derived from embryonic stem(More)
BACKGROUND Selective blockade of interactions between leukocytes and vascular endothelium in the gut is a promising strategy for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. METHODS We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of MLN02, a humanized antibody to the alpha4beta7 integrin, in patients with active ulcerative colitis. We(More)
We examined binding to excitatory amino acid and inhibitory amino acid receptors in frozen hippocampal sections prepared from surgical specimens resected from 8 individuals with medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. The excitatory receptors studied included N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), strychnine-insensitive glycine, phencyclidine, and quisqualate.(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Methotrexate and infliximab are effective therapies for Crohn's disease (CD). In the combination of maintenance methotrexate-infliximab trial, we evaluated the potential superiority of combination therapy over infliximab alone. METHODS In a 50-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we compared methotrexate and infliximab with(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Selective blockade of lymphocyte-vascular endothelium interactions in the gastrointestinal tract is a promising therapeutic strategy for inflammatory bowel disease. This randomized, double-blind, controlled trial assessed the efficacy and safety of MLN0002, a monoclonal antibody targeting the alpha4beta7 integrin, in patients with active(More)
BACKGROUND Ulcerative colitis is largely a disease of nonsmokers. Intermittent smokers often experience improvement in their symptoms while smoking. Nonsmokers with ulcerative colitis who begin smoking may go into remission. Randomized controlled trials were developed to test the efficacy of transdermal nicotine for the induction of remission in ulcerative(More)