We discuss first order theories in which individual concepts are admitted as mathematical objects along with the things that reify them. This allows very straightforward formalizations of knowledge, belief, wanting, and necessity in ordinary first order logic without modal operators. Applications are given in philosophy and in artificial intelligence. We do… (More)
These notes discuss formalizing contexts as first class objects. The basic relation is ist(c,p). It asserts that the proposition ρ is true in the context c. The most important formulas relate the propositions true in different contexts. Introducing contexts as formal objects will permit axiomatizations in limited contexts to be expanded to transcend the… (More)
Ascribing mental qualities like belief s, intentions and wants to a machine is sometimes correct if done conservatively and is sometimes necessary to express what is known about its state. We propose some new definitional tools for this: definitions relative to an approximate theory and second order structural definitions.
This paper concentrates on the development of the basic ideas and distinguishes two periods - Summer 1958 through Summer 1958 when most of the key ideas were developed (some of which were implemented in the FORTRAN based FLPL), and Fall 1958 through 1962 when the programming language was implemented and applied to problems of artificial intelligence. After… (More)
Another language for expressing " knowing that " is given together with axioms and rules of inference and a Kripke type semantics. The formalism is extended to time-dependent knowledge. Completeness and decidability theorems are given. The problem of the wise men with spots on their foreheads and the problem of the unfaithful wives are expressed in the… (More)
In 1969 , John McCarthy , the mathematician who coined the term " Artificial Intelligence , " joined forces with another AI researcher , Patrick Hayes , and coined another term, " the frame problem. " It seemed to be a devil of a problem , perhaps even a mortal blow to the hopes of AI. It looked to me like a new philosophical or epistemological problem ,… (More)
An excessive preoccupation with formalism is impeding the development of computer science. Form-content confusion is discussed relative to three areas: theory of computation , programming languages, and education. The trouble with computer science today is an obsessive concern with form instead of content. No, that is the wrong way to begin. By any previous… (More)
Almost all of my papers are on the web page.
The computer game Lemmings can serve as a new Drosophila for AI research connecting logical formalizations with information that is incompletely formalizable in practice. In this article we discuss the features of the Lemmings world that make it a challenge to both experimental and theoretical AI and present some steps toward formalizing the game using… (More)