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We describe an experiment to assess the influence of body movements on presence in a virtual environment. In the experiment 20 participants were to walk through a virtual field of trees and count the trees with diseased leaves. A 2 x 2 between subjects design was used to assess the influence of two factors on presence: tree height variation and task(More)
I had some strong reactions to Joe Weizenbaum's book, <i>Computer Power and Human Reason.</i> The book mentions some important concerns which are obscured by harsh and sometimes shrill accusations against the Artificial Intelligence research community. On the whole, it seems to me that the personal attacks distract and mislead the reader from more valuable(More)
These notes discuss formalizing contexts as first class objects. The basic relation is ist(c,p). It asserts that the proposition ρ is true in the context c. The most important formulas relate the propositions true in different contexts. Introducing contexts as formal objects will permit axiomatizations in limited contexts to be expanded to transcend the(More)
Ascribing mental qualities like belief s, intentions and wants to a machine is sometimes correct if done conservatively and is sometimes necessary to express what is known about its state. We propose some new definitional tools for this: definitions relative to an approximate theory and second order structural definitions.
This paper concentrates on the development of the basic ideas and distinguishes two periods - Summer 1958 through Summer 1958 when most of the key ideas were developed (some of which were implemented in the FORTRAN based FLPL), and Fall 1958 through 1962 when the programming language was implemented and applied to problems of artificial intelligence. After(More)
This paper describes a formal system and uses it to express the puzzle of the three wise men and the puzzle of Mr. S and Mr. P. Four innovations in the axiomatization of knowledge were required: the ability to express joint knowledge of several people, the ability to express the initial non-knowledge, the ability to describe knowing what rather than merely(More)
In 1969 , John McCarthy , the mathematician who coined the term " Artificial Intelligence , " joined forces with another AI researcher , Patrick Hayes , and coined another term, " the frame problem. " It seemed to be a devil of a problem , perhaps even a mortal blow to the hopes of AI. It looked to me like a new philosophical or epistemological problem ,(More)