These notes discuss formalizing contexts as first class objects. The basic relation is ist(c, p). It asserts that the proposition p is true in the context c. The most important formulas relate the propositions true in different contexts. Introducing contexts as formal objects will permit ax-iomatizations in limited contexts to be expanded to transcend the… (More)
We present a new and more symmetric version of the circumscrip-tion method of nonmonotonic reasoning rst described in (McCarthy 1980) and some applications to formalizing common sense knowledge. The applications in this paper are mostly based on minimizing the abnormality of diierent aspects of various entities. Included are non-monotonic treatments of is-a… (More)
Humans and intelligent computer programs must often jump to the conclusion that the objects they can determine to have certain properties or relations are the only objects that do. Circumscription formalizes such conjectural reasoning.
My 1971 Turing Award Lecture was entitled "Generality in Artificial Intelligence." The topic turned out to have been overambitious in that I discovered I was unable to put my thoughts on the subject in a satisfactory written form at that time. It would have been better to have reviewed my previous work rather than attempt something new, but such was not my… (More)
As the need for high-speed computers increases, the need for multi-processors will be become more apparent. One of the major stumbling blocks to the development of useful multi-processors has been the lack of a good multi-processing language—one which is both powerful and understandable to programmers. Among the most compute-intensive programs are… (More)
We propose to extend the ontology of logical AI to include approximate objects, approximate predicates and approximate theories. Besides the ontology we treat the relations among different approximate theories of the same phenomena. Approximate predicates can't have complete if-and-only-if definitions and usually don't even have definite extensions. Some… (More)
In AI, consciousness of self consists in a program having certain kinds of facts about its own mental processes and state of mind. We discuss what consciousness of its own mental structures a robot will need in order to operate in the common sense world and accomplish the tasks humans will give it. It's quite a lot. Many features of human consciousness will… (More)
This article presents a situation calculus formalism featuring events as primary and the usual actions as a special case. Events that are not actions are called internal events and actions are called external events. The effects of both kinds of events are given by effect axioms of the usual kind. The actions are assumed to be performed by an agent as is… (More)