These notes discuss formalizing contexts as first class objects. The basic relation is ist(c, p). It asserts that the proposition p is true in the context c. The most important formulas relate the propositions true in different contexts. Introducing contexts as formal objects will permit ax-iomatizations in limited contexts to be expanded to transcend the… (More)
Humans and intelligent computer programs must often jump to the conclusion that the objects they can determine to have certain properties or relations are the only objects that do. Circumscription formalizes such conjectural reasoning.
We present a new and more symmetric version of the circumscrip-tion method of nonmonotonic reasoning rst described in (McCarthy 1980) and some applications to formalizing common sense knowledge. The applications in this paper are mostly based on minimizing the abnormality of diierent aspects of various entities. Included are non-monotonic treatments of is-a… (More)
My 1971 Turing Award Lecture was entitled "Generality in Artificial Intelligence." The topic turned out to have been overambitious in that I discovered I was unable to put my thoughts on the subject in a satisfactory written form at that time. It would have been better to have reviewed my previous work rather than attempt something new, but such was not my… (More)
This article is inspired by recent psychological studies confirming that a child is not born a blank slate but has important innate capabilities. An important part of the " learning " required to deal with the three dimensional world of objects, processes, and other beings was done by evolution. Each child need not do this learning itself. By the 1950s… (More)
In AI, consciousness of self consists in a program having certain kinds of facts about its own mental processes and state of mind. We discuss what consciousness of its own mental structures a robot will need in order to operate in the common sense world and accomplish the tasks humans will give it. It's quite a lot. Many features of human consciousness will… (More)
Shannon. The original typescript consisted of 17 pages plus a title page. Copies of the typescript are housed in the archives at Dartmouth College and Stanford University. The first 5 papers state the proposal, and the remaining pages give qualifications and interests of the four who proposed the study. In the interest of brevity, this article reproduces… (More)
As the need for high-speed computers increases, the need for multi-processors will be become more apparent. One of the major stumbling blocks to the development of useful multi-processors has been the lack of a good multi-processing language—one which is both powerful and understandable to programmers. Among the most compute-intensive programs are… (More)