This paper argues that there is a substantial body of economic advice, roughly summarized in the “Washington consensus,” that deserves to be endorsed across the political spectrum. Such endorsement… (More)

Introduction. We shall call a square matrix A of order n an Hadamard matrix or for brevity an iî-matrix, if each element of A has the value ± 1 and if the determinant of A has the maximum possible… (More)

Let A = (aty), (i = l, 2, • • • , ra; j = l , 2, • • • , » ) , be a matrix of m rows and n columns, whose elements a,-,are complex numbers. I t has been shown f that , if m—n and A is non-singular,… (More)

John Williamson, senior fellow at the Peterson Institute, has been associated with the Institute since 1981. He was project director for the UN High-Level Panel on Financing for Development (the… (More)

where P is a positive definite hermitian matrix and U is a unitary matrix. In this polar representation of the matrix A, as it is called, the two matrices P and U are unique. Since the matrix P is… (More)

In the past two years we have lived through the most serious financial and economic crisis in the lives of practically everyone on this earth today. Not surprisingly, and not inappropriately, it has… (More)

Once upon a time I made a list of ten policies which I thought more-or-less everyone in Washington could agree were needed more-or-less everywhere in Latin America. I found a common interpretation of… (More)

The conference whose fortieth anniversary we are here to commemorate omitted to create a fiduciary reserve asset as desired by Keynes, but instead gave its blessing to the gold exchange standard… (More)