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In the early development of the central nervous system, stimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors may be critical for neuronal cell survival and differentiation, as well as the establishment of neural networks resulting from "experience-dependent plasticity." The trophic influence of NMDA receptor stimulation may be present only during a certain(More)
Diminished facial expressivity is a common feature of schizophrenia that interferes with effective interpersonal communication. This study was designed to determine if real-time visual feedback improved the ability of patients with schizophrenia to imitate and produce modeled facial expressions. Twenty patients with schizophrenia and 10 controls viewed(More)
MK-801, a high-affinity phencyclidine (PCP) analogue, is a noncompetitive antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subclass of glutamate receptor that elicits hyperactivity, stereotypic behaviors, and "popping," an explosive episodic jumping behavior, in mice. The schizophreniform psychosis precipitated by PCP in humans has stimulated interest in(More)
In persons with Down syndrome, soluble Abeta peptides, which result from the processing of the amyloid precursor protein, appear in the brain decades before the extracellular deposition of neuritic plaques. These soluble amyloidogenic peptides accumulate intraneuronally and can be secreted extracellularly. Their appearance has been reported in the brains of(More)
BACKGROUND N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor open channel blockers phencyclidine (PCP) and dizocilpine (MK-801) elicit schizophrenia-like symptoms in humans and in animal models. Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists reverse the behavioral effects of PCP and MK-801 in animal models. N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG), the third most prevalent(More)
A revision of an "excitotoxic hypothesis" of schizophrenia is summarized. The hypothesis suggests that in, at least, a subtype of patients with schizophrenia, progressive excitotoxic neuronal cell death in hippocampal and cortical areas occurs via "disinhibition" of glutamatergic projections to these areas. Patients who have excitotoxic damage would be(More)
Adaptive changes in the NMDA receptor complex occur in response to exposure to stress. We have previously shown that the ability of MK-801, an uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, to antagonize electrically precipitated tonic hind-limb extension is reduced 24 h after mice are forced to swim for up to 10 min in cold water. The stress-induced reduction of(More)
OBJECTIVE There are preclinical data showing that fluoxetine stimulated expression of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and its specific tyrosine kinase receptor, and caused neuritic elongation and increased dendritic branching density of CA3 hippocampal pyramidal cell neurons in rodents. The latter effect of fluoxetine has been referred to as(More)
N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor hypofunction (NRH) and its downstream consequences, especially excitotoxicity, may explain the progressive psychosocial deterioration and ventriculomegaly observed in at least some patients with schizophrenia. Topiramate has several properties that address downstream consequences of NRH. In this open-label investigation, the(More)
Sarcosinemia is a relatively rare autosomal recessive disorder that has a varied phenotypic presentation; rarely, it is associated with neurodevelopmental and neurological abnormalities. Sarcosine is a key intermediate in 1-carbon metabolism, and its elevation in blood and urine could reflect a deficient pool size of activated 1-carbon units. Sarcosine is(More)