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BACKGROUND In bacteremia owing to Streptococcus pneumoniae, high bacterial counts at presentation have been shown to be predictive of the development of serious invasive disease. Using real-time PCR, we aimed to determine pneumococcal DNA loads in blood and CSF, and their relationship to cytokine concentrations, clinical presentation and outcome. METHODS(More)
Twenty clinical samples (18 cerebrospinal fluid samples and 2 articular fluid samples) were sent to 11 meningococcus reference centers located in 11 different countries. Ten of these laboratories are participating in the EU-MenNet program (a European Union-funded program) and are members of the European Monitoring Group on Meningococci. The remaining(More)
AIMS To determine bacterial loads in meningococcal disease (MCD), their relation with disease severity, and the factors which determine bacterial load. METHODS Meningococcal DNA quantification was performed by the Taqman PCR method on admission and sequential blood samples from patients with MCD. Disease severity was assessed using the Glasgow Septicaemia(More)
The widening gap observed between numbers of culture confirmed and notified cases of meningococcal infection has driven the development of non-culture based polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) to enhance the detection of meningococcal disease. The development of a national PCR-based service increased the number of laboratory confirmed cases of meningococcal(More)
In a period where the proportion of culture confirmed cases in the UK has been steadily declining, diagnosis by PCR has been used to increase the number of confirmed cases and provide additional epidemiological data. This report presents a comparative evaluation of the fluorogenic probe-based 5' exonuclease assay (Taqman) using the Perkin-Elmer Applied(More)
BACKGROUND The clinical diagnosis of meningococcal disease (MCD) can be difficult. Non-culture methods like the previous ELISA meningococcal PCR improved case confirmation rates, but were not ideal. A Taqman meningococcal PCR, using DNA extracted from serum (S-Taqman), which has an improved sensitivity compared to the ELISA method in vitro, was introduced(More)
SRICO has developed a revolutionary approach to physiological status monitoring using state-of-the-art optical chip technology. The company’s patent pending PhotrodeTM is a photonic electrode that uses unique optical voltage sensing technology to measure and monitor electrophysiological parameters. The optical-based monitoring system enables drycontact(More)
Real livestock prices and farm-wholesale marketing margins have steadily declined over the past 20 years. Studies examining the causes of these declines have generally failed to account directly for technological change in livestock production and red meat slaughtering. We estimate reduced-form models for beef and pork farm-wholesale marketing margins and(More)
r buyer's signed to petition. ion Introduction Economics is an essential input into policy decision making if for no other reason than its ability to identify unintended consequences of otherwise well-intended policy initiatives (Harberger, 1993). This is perhaps especially true for trade policy, where interest groups seek policy benefits while ignoring the(More)