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Conifers have dominated forests for more than 200 million years and are of huge ecological and economic importance. Here we present the draft assembly of the 20-gigabase genome of Norway spruce (Picea abies), the first available for any gymnosperm. The number of well-supported genes (28,354) is similar to the >100 times smaller genome of Arabidopsis(More)
Studying lignin-biosynthetic-pathway mutants and transgenics provides insights into plant responses to perturbations of the lignification system, and enhances our understanding of normal lignification. When enzymes late in the pathway are downregulated, significant changes in the composition and structure of lignin may result. NMR spectroscopy provides(More)
Novel lignin is formed in a mutant loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) severely depleted in cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.1.1.195), which converts coniferaldehyde to coniferyl alcohol, the primary lignin precursor in pines. Dihydroconiferyl alcohol, a monomer not normally associated with the lignin biosynthetic pathway, is the major component of the(More)
UNLABELLED White spruce (Picea glauca) is a dominant conifer of the boreal forests of North America, and providing genomics resources for this commercially valuable tree will help improve forest management and conservation efforts. Sequencing and assembling the large and highly repetitive spruce genome though pushes the boundaries of the current technology.(More)
The involvement of two R2R3-MYB genes from Pinus taeda L., PtMYB1 and PtMYB8, in phenylpropanoid metabolism and secondary cell wall biogenesis was investigated in planta. These pine MYBs were constitutively overexpressed (OE) in Picea glauca (Moench) Voss, used as a heterologous conifer expression system. Morphological, histological, chemical (lignin and(More)
BACKGROUND Several members of the R2R3-MYB family of transcription factors act as regulators of lignin and phenylpropanoid metabolism during wood formation in angiosperm and gymnosperm plants. The angiosperm Arabidopsis has over one hundred R2R3-MYBs genes; however, only a few members of this family have been discovered in gymnosperms. RESULTS We isolated(More)
We have discovered a mutant loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in which expression of the gene encoding cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD; EC 1.1.1.195) is severely reduced. The products of CAD, cinnamyl alcohols, are the precursors of lignin, a major cell wall polymer of plant vascular tissues. Lignin composition in this mutant shows dramatic modifications,(More)
BACKGROUND High-throughput genotyping technologies represent a highly efficient way to accelerate genetic mapping and enable association studies. As a first step toward this goal, we aimed to develop a resource of candidate Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) in white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss), a softwood tree of major economic importance. (More)
OBJECTIVE Evaluate the effectiveness of collaborative management of hypertension by primary care-pharmacist teams in community-based clinics. STUDY DESIGN A 12-month prospective, single-blind, randomized, controlled trial in the Providence Primary Care Research Network of patients with hypertension and uncontrolled blood pressure. METHODS As compared to(More)