John M. X. Hughes

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Eukaryotic ribosomal RNA (rRNA) contains numerous modified nucleotides: about 115 methyl groups and some 95 pseudouridines in vertebrates; about 65 methyl groups and some 45 pseudouridines inSaccharomyces cerevisiae. All but about ten of the methyl groups are ribose methylations. The remaining ten are on heterocyclic bases. The ribose methylations occur(More)
Eukaryotic translation initiation involves recognition of the 5' end of cellular mRNA by the cap-binding complex known as eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F). Initiation is a key point of regulation in gene expression in response to mechanisms mediated by signal transduction pathways. We have investigated the molecular interactions underlying inhibition(More)
The eukaryotic 40S ribosomal subunit locates the translation initiation codon on an mRNA via the so-called scanning process that follows 40S binding to the capped 5' end. This key step in translation is required for the expression of almost all eukaryotic genes, yet the mechanism and dynamics of scanning are unknown. We have performed quantitative studies(More)
Protein synthesis utilizes a large proportion of the available free energy in the eukaryotic cell and must be precisely controlled, yet up to now there has been no systematic rate control analysis of the in vivo process. We now present a novel study of rate control by eukaryotic translation initiation factors (eIFs) using yeast strains in which chromosomal(More)
4E-binding proteins (4E-BPs) are believed to have important regulatory functions in controlling the rate of translation initiation in mammalian cells. They do so by binding to the mRNA cap-binding protein, eIF4E, thereby inhibiting formation of the cap-binding complex, a process essential for cap-dependent translation initiation. We have reproduced the(More)
Endoglin is a membrane-inserted protein that is preferentially synthesized in angiogenic vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Endoglin associates with members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) receptor family and has been identified as the gene involved in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Although endoglin is known to affect(More)
Translation initiation is a key point of regulation in eukaryotic gene expression. 4E-binding proteins (4E-BPs) inhibit initiation by blocking the association of eIF4E with eIF4G, two integral components of the mRNA cap-binding complex. Phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 reduces its ability to bind to eIF4E and thereby to compete with eIF4G. A novel combination of(More)
Translation initiation in eukaryotes is a complicated process involving some of the largest cellular structures, the ribosomes, together with approx. 11 initiation factors, and a poorly characterized set of other proteins. The concerted action of all these components ultimately results in the formation of an 80 S ribosomal complex on the AUG codon of an(More)
Chemistry. NMR spectra were recorded on a 400 MHz spectrometer and referenced to the solvent. Reactions were monitored by TLC using standard silica gel plates. All chemicals were obtained from commercial sources, and the solvents were of analytical grade. Substrates 1-9a and 12a and products 1-2b and 4-8b, along with methyl α-methyl-trans-cinnamate, methyl(More)
The haem-containing mono-oxygenase cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and its redox partner NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CPR) are among the most important enzymes in human liver for metabolizing drugs and xenobiotic compounds. They are membrane-bound in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). How ER colocalization and the complex ER phospholipid(More)