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Retinal ischemia is a common cause of visual impairment and blindness. At the cellular level, ischemic retinal injury consists of a self-reinforcing destructive cascade involving neuronal depolarisation, calcium influx and oxidative stress initiated by energy failure and increased glutamatergic stimulation. There is a cell-specific sensitivity to ischemic(More)
The development of functional blood and lymphatic vessels requires spatio-temporal coordination of the production and release of growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs). VEGF family proteins are produced in multiple isoforms with distinct biological properties and bind to three types of VEGF receptors. A VEGF-A splice variant,(More)
Migratory waterfowl and shore birds harbour a wide range of influenza viruses, some of which have been implicated in influenza outbreaks in mammals and domestic birds. In the present study, a comparison was made of two marshalling areas for different migratory flyways of waterfowl in North America over a 6-8-year period. Virtually all known influenza(More)
The enzyme-linked immunospot assay was used to examine the humoral immune response in 15 healthy volunteers immunized with either split or subunit inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine containing A/Beijing/353/89 (H3N2), A/Taiwan/1/86 (H1N1) and B/Yamagata/16/88. The rapidity of the individual B-cell and serum antibody response was examined in lymphocyte(More)
BACKGROUND In 1997, pathogenic avian influenza A/Hong Kong/97 (H5N1) viruses emerged as a pandemic threat to human beings. A non-pathogenic variant, influenza A/Duck/Singapore/97 (H5N3), was identified as a leading vaccine candidate. We did an observer-blind, phase I, randomised trial in healthy volunteers to assess safety, tolerability, and antigenicity of(More)
BACKGROUND Pathogenic avian influenza A virus H5N1 has caused outbreaks in poultry and migratory birds in Asia, Africa, and Europe, and caused disease and death in people. Although person-to-person spread of current H5N1 strains is unlikely, the virus is a potential source of a future influenza pandemic. Our aim was to assess the safety and immunogenicity(More)
Human influenza vaccine reference strains are prepared as required when an antigenically new strain is recommended by WHO for inclusion in the vaccine. Currently, for influenza A, these strains are produced by a double infection of embryonated hens' eggs using the recommended strain and the laboratory strain PR8 which grows to high titre in eggs, in order(More)
We showed previously that the increased rate of mRNA turnover associated with premature translational termination in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires a functional UPF1 gene product. In this study, we show that the UPF1 gene codes for a 109-kDa primary translation product whose function is not essential for growth. The protein contains a potential(More)
Composite outcomes, in which multiple end points are combined, are frequently used as primary outcome measures in randomized trials and are often associated with increased statistical efficiency. However, such measures may prove challenging for the interpretation of results. In this article, we examine the use of composite outcomes in major clinical trials,(More)
Management of glaucoma is directed at the control of intraocular pressure (IOP), yet it is recognized now that increased IOP isjust an important risk factor in glaucoma. Therapy that prevents the death of ganglion cells is the main goal of treatment, but an understanding of the causes of ganglion cell death and precisely how it occurs remains speculative.(More)