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Retinal ischemia is a common cause of visual impairment and blindness. At the cellular level, ischemic retinal injury consists of a self-reinforcing destructive cascade involving neuronal depolarisation, calcium influx and oxidative stress initiated by energy failure and increased glutamatergic stimulation. There is a cell-specific sensitivity to ischemic(More)
The authors propose that light entering the eye interacts with retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon mitochondria to generate reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) and that when these neurons are in an energetically low state, their capacity to remove these damaging molecules is exceeded and their survival is compromised. They suggest that in the initial stages of(More)
Glaucoma is a chronic optic neuropathy in which retinal ganglion cells die over a number of years. The initiation of the disease and its progression may involve an ischaemic-like insult to the ganglion cell axons caused by an alteration in the quality of blood flow. Thus, to effectively treat glaucoma it may be necessary to counteract the ischaemic-like(More)
PURPOSE Our study aimed to establish a model of energetic and metabolic dysfunction to cultured retinal cells by chemically inhibiting the mitochondrial electron transport chain with sodium azide (NaN(3)), and subsequently investigating toxic mechanisms and potential neuroprotective strategies. Methods. Mixed rat retinal cultures comprising neurons and glia(More)
1. Flupirtine (Katadolon) is a member of a class of triaminopyridines and is used as a nonopioid analgesic agent with muscle relaxant properties. 2. In situ experiments have revealed that flupirtine protects against ischemic-induced insults to the retina and brain. 3. Data derived from in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that flupirtine functions as a weak(More)
Management of glaucoma is directed at the control of intraocular pressure (IOP), yet it is recognized now that increased IOP isjust an important risk factor in glaucoma. Therapy that prevents the death of ganglion cells is the main goal of treatment, but an understanding of the causes of ganglion cell death and precisely how it occurs remains speculative.(More)
Glaucoma represents a group of neurodegenerative diseases characterised by structural damage to the optic nerve and slow, progressive death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Elevated intraocular pressure is traditionally considered to be the most important risk factor for glaucoma, and treatment options for the disease have hitherto been limited to its(More)
The participation of (6R) 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (6-BH4) in regulating the tyrosine supply for melanin biosynthesis was investigated by the examination of human keratinocytes, melanocytes, and epidermal suction blisters from normal human skin and from patients with the depigmentation disorder vitiligo. Cells, as well as total epidermis, contained high(More)
PURPOSE The transformed RGC-5 retinal ganglion cell line is used widely in glaucoma research. Increased resistance to glutamate was noted in published literature and led to the recharacterization of the RGC-5 cell line. METHODS Characterization of the RGC-5 cell line was performed by sequencing of a region of the nuclear Thy1 gene and mitochondrial DNA(More)