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Retinal ischemia is a common cause of visual impairment and blindness. At the cellular level, ischemic retinal injury consists of a self-reinforcing destructive cascade involving neuronal depolarisation, calcium influx and oxidative stress initiated by energy failure and increased glutamatergic stimulation. There is a cell-specific sensitivity to ischemic(More)
Migratory waterfowl and shore birds harbour a wide range of influenza viruses, some of which have been implicated in influenza outbreaks in mammals and domestic birds. In the present study, a comparison was made of two marshalling areas for different migratory flyways of waterfowl in North America over a 6-8-year period. Virtually all known influenza(More)
BACKGROUND In 1997, pathogenic avian influenza A/Hong Kong/97 (H5N1) viruses emerged as a pandemic threat to human beings. A non-pathogenic variant, influenza A/Duck/Singapore/97 (H5N3), was identified as a leading vaccine candidate. We did an observer-blind, phase I, randomised trial in healthy volunteers to assess safety, tolerability, and antigenicity of(More)
In April 1983, an influenza virus of low virulence appeared in chickens in Pennsylvania. Subsequently, in October 1983, the virus became virulent and caused high mortality in poultry. The causative agent has been identified as an influenza virus of the H5N2 serotype. The hemagglutinin is antigenically closely related to tern/South Africa/61 (H5N3) and the(More)
We showed previously that the increased rate of mRNA turnover associated with premature translational termination in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires a functional UPF1 gene product. In this study, we show that the UPF1 gene codes for a 109-kDa primary translation product whose function is not essential for growth. The protein contains a potential(More)
BACKGROUND Pathogenic avian influenza A virus H5N1 has caused outbreaks in poultry and migratory birds in Asia, Africa, and Europe, and caused disease and death in people. Although person-to-person spread of current H5N1 strains is unlikely, the virus is a potential source of a future influenza pandemic. Our aim was to assess the safety and immunogenicity(More)
From 1977 to 1983, waterfowl migrating along the Atlantic flyway were annually monitored for orthomyxoviruses and paramyxoviruses in an area in central New York State. A total of 168 influenza isolates were obtained from 1,430 waterfowl. Twenty-four combinations of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase subtypes were detected, with as many as 12 found in a single(More)
PURPOSE Our study aimed to establish a model of energetic and metabolic dysfunction to cultured retinal cells by chemically inhibiting the mitochondrial electron transport chain with sodium azide (NaN(3)), and subsequently investigating toxic mechanisms and potential neuroprotective strategies. Methods. Mixed rat retinal cultures comprising neurons and glia(More)