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Retinal ischemia is a common cause of visual impairment and blindness. At the cellular level, ischemic retinal injury consists of a self-reinforcing destructive cascade involving neuronal depolarisation, calcium influx and oxidative stress initiated by energy failure and increased glutamatergic stimulation. There is a cell-specific sensitivity to ischemic(More)
The neurodegenerative disease glaucoma is characterised by the progressive death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and structural damage to the optic nerve (ON). New insights have been gained into the pathogenesis of glaucoma through the use of rodent models; however, a coherent picture of the early pathology remains elusive. Here, we use a validated,(More)
The authors propose that light entering the eye interacts with retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon mitochondria to generate reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) and that when these neurons are in an energetically low state, their capacity to remove these damaging molecules is exceeded and their survival is compromised. They suggest that in the initial stages of(More)
Glaucoma is a chronic optic neuropathy in which retinal ganglion cells die over a number of years. The initiation of the disease and its progression may involve an ischaemic-like insult to the ganglion cell axons caused by an alteration in the quality of blood flow. Thus, to effectively treat glaucoma it may be necessary to counteract the ischaemic-like(More)
PURPOSE Our study aimed to establish a model of energetic and metabolic dysfunction to cultured retinal cells by chemically inhibiting the mitochondrial electron transport chain with sodium azide (NaN(3)), and subsequently investigating toxic mechanisms and potential neuroprotective strategies. Methods. Mixed rat retinal cultures comprising neurons and glia(More)
1. Flupirtine (Katadolon) is a member of a class of triaminopyridines and is used as a nonopioid analgesic agent with muscle relaxant properties. 2. In situ experiments have revealed that flupirtine protects against ischemic-induced insults to the retina and brain. 3. Data derived from in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that flupirtine functions as a weak(More)
The attenuation of the perimetric response arising from cataract was investigated and related to the degree of cataract quantified by glare sensitivity. Visual fields were measured with the Octopus and Dicon automated perimeters out to an eccentricity of 30 degrees. Nuclear and non-nuclear cataracts differed in their effect on the perimetric profile.(More)
Management of glaucoma is directed at the control of intraocular pressure (IOP), yet it is recognized now that increased IOP isjust an important risk factor in glaucoma. Therapy that prevents the death of ganglion cells is the main goal of treatment, but an understanding of the causes of ganglion cell death and precisely how it occurs remains speculative.(More)
Glaucoma represents a group of neurodegenerative diseases characterised by structural damage to the optic nerve and slow, progressive death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Elevated intraocular pressure is traditionally considered to be the most important risk factor for glaucoma, and treatment options for the disease have hitherto been limited to its(More)
PURPOSE The transformed RGC-5 retinal ganglion cell line is used widely in glaucoma research. Increased resistance to glutamate was noted in published literature and led to the recharacterization of the RGC-5 cell line. METHODS Characterization of the RGC-5 cell line was performed by sequencing of a region of the nuclear Thy1 gene and mitochondrial DNA(More)