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Retinal ischemia is a common cause of visual impairment and blindness. At the cellular level, ischemic retinal injury consists of a self-reinforcing destructive cascade involving neuronal depolarisation, calcium influx and oxidative stress initiated by energy failure and increased glutamatergic stimulation. There is a cell-specific sensitivity to ischemic(More)
The authors propose that light entering the eye interacts with retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon mitochondria to generate reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) and that when these neurons are in an energetically low state, their capacity to remove these damaging molecules is exceeded and their survival is compromised. They suggest that in the initial stages of(More)
The neurodegenerative disease glaucoma is characterised by the progressive death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and structural damage to the optic nerve (ON). New insights have been gained into the pathogenesis of glaucoma through the use of rodent models; however, a coherent picture of the early pathology remains elusive. Here, we use a validated,(More)
We report a genome-wide association study for open-angle glaucoma (OAG) blindness using a discovery cohort of 590 individuals with severe visual field loss (cases) and 3,956 controls. We identified associated loci at TMCO1 (rs4656461[G] odds ratio (OR) = 1.68, P = 6.1 × 10(-10)) and CDKN2B-AS1 (rs4977756[A] OR = 1.50, P = 4.7 × 10(-9)). We replicated these(More)
PURPOSE Our study aimed to establish a model of energetic and metabolic dysfunction to cultured retinal cells by chemically inhibiting the mitochondrial electron transport chain with sodium azide (NaN(3)), and subsequently investigating toxic mechanisms and potential neuroprotective strategies. Methods. Mixed rat retinal cultures comprising neurons and glia(More)
Glaucoma is a chronic optic neuropathy in which retinal ganglion cells die over a number of years. The initiation of the disease and its progression may involve an ischaemic-like insult to the ganglion cell axons caused by an alteration in the quality of blood flow. Thus, to effectively treat glaucoma it may be necessary to counteract the ischaemic-like(More)
Detection of neuronal death is an essential requirement for researchers investigating retinal degeneration. Fluoro-Jade C (FJC) is a novel, fluorescent dye that has been successfully used to label degenerating neurons in the brain, but its effectiveness in the eye has not been ascertained. In the current study, we determined the efficacy of FJC for(More)
1. Flupirtine (Katadolon) is a member of a class of triaminopyridines and is used as a nonopioid analgesic agent with muscle relaxant properties. 2. In situ experiments have revealed that flupirtine protects against ischemic-induced insults to the retina and brain. 3. Data derived from in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that flupirtine functions as a weak(More)
The production of seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines depends on the timely availability of suitable reference viruses.Seasonal vaccines are traditionally produced from high-growth reassortant viruses, which have been derived empirically using well-established techniques. However, it is not possible to use such approaches in deriving vaccine reference(More)
Management of glaucoma is directed at the control of intraocular pressure (IOP), yet it is recognized now that increased IOP isjust an important risk factor in glaucoma. Therapy that prevents the death of ganglion cells is the main goal of treatment, but an understanding of the causes of ganglion cell death and precisely how it occurs remains speculative.(More)