John M. Stafford

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Blood glucose levels are maintained by the balance between glucose uptake by peripheral tissues and glucose secretion by the liver. Gluconeogenesis is strongly stimulated during fasting and is aberrantly activated in diabetes mellitus. Here we show that the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1 is strongly induced in liver in fasting mice and in three mouse(More)
OBJECTIVE Elevated triglyceride (TG) is the major plasma lipid abnormality in obese and diabetic patients and contributes to cardiovascular morbidity in these disorders. We sought to identify novel mechanisms leading to hypertriglyceridemia. Resistance to negative feedback signals from adipose tissue in key central nervous system (CNS) energy homeostatic(More)
Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 (HNF4), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, plays an important role in tissue-specific gene expression, including genes involved in hepatic glucose metabolism. In this study, we show that SRC-1 and GRIP1, which act as coactivators for various nuclear receptors, associate with HNF4 in vivo and enhance its transactivation(More)
Glucocorticoid induction of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene requires a glucocorticoid response unit (GRU) comprised of two non-consensus glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding sites, GR1 and GR2, and at least three accessory factor elements (gAF1-3). DNA-binding accessory proteins are commonly required for the regulation of genes whose(More)
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is a rate-controlling enzyme in hepatic gluconeogenesis, and it therefore plays a central role in glucose homeostasis. The rate of transcription of the PEPCK gene is increased by glucagon (via cAMP) and glucocorticoids and is inhibited by insulin. Under certain circumstances glucose also decreases PEPCK gene(More)
Pathway-selective insulin resistance where insulin fails to suppress hepatic glucose production but promotes liver fat storage may underlie glucose and lipid abnormalities after menopause. We tested the mechanisms by which estrogen treatment may alter the impact of a high-fat diet (HFD) when given at the time of ovariectomy (OVX) in mice. Female C57BL/6J(More)
Hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism are altered in metabolic disease (e.g. obesity, metabolic syndrome, and Type 2 diabetes). Insulin-dependent regulation of glucose metabolism is impaired. In contrast, lipogenesis, hypertriglyceridemia, and hepatic steatosis are increased. Because insulin promotes lipogenesis and liver fat accumulation, to explain the(More)
Glucocorticoids exert their effects on gene transcription through ubiquitous receptors that bind to regulatory sequences present in many genes. These glucocorticoid receptors are present in all cell types, yet glucocorticoid action is controlled in a tissue-specific way. One mechanism for this control relies on tissue-specific transcriptional activators(More)
Elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) levels contribute to an atherogenic dyslipidemia that is associated with obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Numerous models of obesity are characterized by increased central nervous system (CNS) neuropeptide Y (NPY) tone that contributes to excess food intake and obesity. Previously, we demonstrated that(More)
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) shuttles lipids between lipoproteins, culminating in cholesteryl ester delivery to liver and increased secretion of cholesterol as bile. Since gut bile acids promote insulin sensitivity, we aimed to define if CETP improves insulin sensitivity with high-fat feeding. CETP and nontransgenic mice of both sexes became(More)