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Intracellular Ca2+ and protein phosphorylation play pivotal roles in long-term potentiation (LTP), a cellular model of learning and memory. Ca2+ regulates multiple intracellular pathways, including the calmodulin-dependent kinases (CaMKs) and the ERKs (extracellular signal-regulated kinases), both of which are required for LTP. However, the mechanism by(More)
Elevated intracellular Ca(2+) triggers numerous signaling pathways including protein kinases such as the calmodulin-dependent kinases (CaMKs) and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs). In the present study we examined Ca(2+)-dependent "cross-talk" between these two protein kinase families. Using a combination of pharmacological inhibitors and(More)
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) binds peripheral neurons at the neuromuscular junction through a dual-receptor mechanism that includes interactions with ganglioside and protein receptors. The receptor identities vary depending on BoNT serotype (A-G). BoNT/B and BoNT/G bind the luminal domains of synaptotagmin I and II, homologous synaptic vesicle proteins. We(More)
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