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AIM To examine ethnic and sex differences in the pattern of skeletal maturity from adolescence to adulthood using a novel longitudinal analysis technique (SuperImposition by Translation And Rotation (SITAR)). SETTING Johannesburg, South Africa. PARTICIPANTS 607 boys and girls of black as well as white ethnicity from the Birth to Twenty bone health(More)
BACKGROUND Maintaining a normal vitamin D status is important for both skeletal and extra-skeletal health. Recent data show that vitamin D deficiency is endemic in women residing in the Arabian Gulf and is common in pregnant women and their newborns. The purpose of this study was to establish the vitamin D and calcium status of children in an urban(More)
BACKGROUND South Africa (SA) is undergoing multiple transitions with an increasing burden of non-communicable diseases and high levels of overweight and obesity in adolescent girls and women. Adolescence is key to addressing trans-generational risk and a window of opportunity to intervene and positively impact on individuals' health trajectories into(More)
BACKGROUND Low- to middle-income countries are undergoing a health transition with non-communicable diseases contributing substantially to disease burden, despite persistence of undernutrition and infectious diseases. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and patterns of stunting and overweight/obesity, and hence risk for metabolic disease, in a(More)
UNLABELLED Fracture rates were compared in children of different ethnic backgrounds from Johannesburg, South Africa. More white children fracture than black and mixed ancestry children. Reasons for this may be due to greater sports participation by whites and genetic protective factors in blacks. This has to be further investigated. INTRODUCTION Fracture(More)
BACKGROUND Physical inactivity is increasing among children and adolescents and may be contributing to the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity. This study examines physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns, and explores associations with individual, maternal, household, and community factors amongst rural South African adolescents. (More)
BACKGROUND Achieving the Millennium Development Goals that aim to reduce malnutrition and child mortality depends in part on the ability of governments/policymakers to address nutritional status of children in general and those infected or affected by HIV/AIDS in particular. This study describes HIV prevalence in children, patterns of malnutrition by HIV(More)
Children with calcium-deficiency rickets may have increased vitamin D requirements and respond differently to vitamin D(2) and vitamin D(3). Our objective was to compare the metabolism of vitamins D(2) and D(3) in rachitic and control children. We administered an oral single dose of vitamin D(2) or D(3) of 1.25 mg to 49 Nigerian children--28 with active(More)
The Department of Nutrition for Health and Development of the World Health Organization (WHO) in collaboration with the Executive Committee of the 18th Vitamin D Workshop (VDW), organised a joint symposium on the prevention and consequences of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women and children, convening experts on vitamin D, clinicians and policy-makers.(More)