John M. Pawelek

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There is evidence that L-tyrosine and L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), besides serving as substrates and intermediates of melanogenesis, are also bioregulatory agents acting not only as inducers and positive regulators of melanogenesis but also as regulators of other cellular functions. These can be mediated through action on specific receptors or through(More)
Melanomas that result from mutations in the gene encoding BRAF often become resistant to BRAF inhibition (BRAFi), with multiple mechanisms contributing to resistance. While therapy-induced autophagy promotes resistance to a number of therapies, especially those that target PI3K/mTOR signaling, its role as an adaptive resistance mechanism to BRAFi is not(More)
The biosynthesis of melanin is initiated by the catalytic oxidation of tyrosine to dopa by tyrosinase in a reaction that requires dopa as a cofactor. Tyrosine then catalyzes the dehydrogenation of dopa to dopaquinone. The subsequent reactions can proceed spontaneously in vitro. Tyrosinase, purified from murine melanomas and the skins of brown mice, has now(More)
There has been little investigation of bacteria as gene delivery vectors. Here, we demonstrate that genetically engineered Salmonella have many of the desirable properties of a delivery vector, including targeting of multiple tumors from a distant inoculation site, selective replication within tumors, tumor retardation, and the ability to express effector(More)
Systemically administered tumor-targeted Salmonella has been developed as an anticancer agent, although its use could be limited by the potential induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha)-mediated septic shock stimulated by lipid A. Genetic modifications of tumor-targeting Salmonella that alter lipid A and increase safety must, however, retain the(More)
Melanoma remains among the most lethal cancers and, in spite of great attempts that have been made to increase the life span of patients with metastatic disease, durable and complete remissions are rare. Plants and plant extracts have long been used to treat a variety of human conditions; however, in many cases, effective doses of herbal remedies are(More)
VNP20009 is a genetically modified strain of Salmonella typhimurium possessing an excellent safety profile, including genetically stable attenuated virulence (a deletion in the purI gene), reduction of septic shock potential (a deletion in the msbB gene), and antibiotic susceptibility. VNP20009 is genetically stable after multiple generations in vitro and(More)
Live bacteria were first actively used in the treatment of cancer nearly 150 years ago, work that ultimately led to the study of immunomodulation. Today, with the discovery of bacterial strains that specifically target tumours, and aided by genomic sequencing and genetic engineering, there is new interest in the use of bacteria as tumour vectors.(More)
The causes of metastasis remain elusive despite vast information on cancer cells. We posit that cancer cell fusion with macrophages or other migratory bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) provides an explanation. BMDC-tumour hybrids have been detected in numerous animal models and recently in human cancer. Molecular studies indicate that gene expression in(More)
PURPOSE Measurement of autophagy in cancer and correlation with histopathologic grading or clinical outcomes has been limited. Accordingly, we investigated LC3B as an autophagosome marker by analyzing nearly 1,400 tumors from 20 types of cancer, focusing on correlations with clinical outcomes in melanoma and breast cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Staining(More)