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This article provides an introduction to surface code quantum computing. We first estimate the size and speed of a surface code quantum computer. We then introduce the concept of the stabilizer, using two qubits, and extend this concept to stabilizers acting on a two-dimensional array of physical qubits, on which we implement the surface code. We next… (More)

Quantum technology is maturing to the point where quantum devices, such as quantum communication systems, quantum random number generators and quantum simulators may be built with capabilities exceeding classical computers. A quantum annealer, in particular, solves optimization problems by evolving a known initial configuration at non-zero temperature… (More)

- John M. Martinis, K . B . Cooper, +8 authors Clare C. Yu
- Physical review letters
- 2005

Dielectric loss from two-level states is shown to be a dominant decoherence source in superconducting quantum bits. Depending on the qubit design, dielectric loss from insulating materials or the tunnel junction can lead to short coherence times. We show that a variety of microwave and qubit measurements are well modeled by loss from resonant absorption of… (More)

- Aaron D O'Connell, Max Hofheinz, +10 authors Andrew N. Cleland
- Nature
- 2010

Quantum mechanics provides a highly accurate description of a wide variety of physical systems. However, a demonstration that quantum mechanics applies equally to macroscopic mechanical systems has been a long-standing challenge, hindered by the difficulty of cooling a mechanical mode to its quantum ground state. The temperatures required are typically far… (More)

- John M. Martinis, Sungmin Nam, José Aumentado, Cristián Urbina
- Physical review letters
- 2002

We have designed and operated a circuit based on a large-area current-biased Josephson junction whose two lowest energy quantum levels are used to implement a solid-state qubit. The circuit allows measurement of the qubit states with a fidelity of 85% while providing sufficient decoupling from external sources of relaxation and decoherence to allow coherent… (More)

- Rami Barends, Julian J Kelly, +19 authors John M. Martinis
- Nature
- 2014

A quantum computer can solve hard problems, such as prime factoring, database searching and quantum simulation, at the cost of needing to protect fragile quantum states from error. Quantum error correction provides this protection by distributing a logical state among many physical quantum bits (qubits) by means of quantum entanglement. Superconductivity is… (More)

- T. F. Rønnow, Zhihui Wang, +6 authors Matthias Troyer
- 2014

Troels F. Rønnow, Zhihui Wang, Joshua Job, Sergio Boixo, Sergei V. Isakov, David Wecker, John M. Martinis, Daniel A. Lidar, and Matthias Troyer∗1 Theoretische Physik, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland Department of Chemistry and Center for Quantum Information Science & Technology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA… (More)

- Max Hofheinz, Huijun Wang, +8 authors Andrew N. Cleland
- Nature
- 2009

The superposition principle is a fundamental tenet of quantum mechanics. It allows a quantum system to be 'in two places at the same time', because the quantum state of a physical system can simultaneously include measurably different physical states. The preparation and use of such superposed states forms the basis of quantum computation and simulation.… (More)

- Julian J Kelly, Rami Barends, +19 authors John M. Martinis
- Nature
- 2015

Quantum computing becomes viable when a quantum state can be protected from environment-induced error. If quantum bits (qubits) are sufficiently reliable, errors are sparse and quantum error correction (QEC) is capable of identifying and correcting them. Adding more qubits improves the preservation of states by guaranteeing that increasingly larger clusters… (More)

- Vasil S. Denchev, S. Boixo, +5 authors Hartmut Neven
- 2016

Quantum annealing (QA) has been proposed as a quantum enhanced optimization heuristic exploiting tunneling. Here, we demonstrate how finite-range tunneling can provide considerable computational advantage. For a crafted problem designed to have tall and narrow energy barriers separating local minima, the D-Wave 2X quantum annealer achieves significant… (More)