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In some intensive care units (ICUs), fewer patients who die now undergo attempts at cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and many more have life support actively withdrawn prior to death than did a decade ago. To determine the frequency of withdrawal of life support, we contacted every American postgraduate training program with significant clinical(More)
To determine whether limits to life-sustaining care are becoming more common, we attempted to quantify the incidence of recommendations to withhold or withdraw life support from critically ill patients, to describe how patients respond to these recommendations, and to examine how conflicts over these recommendations are resolved. In 1992 and 1993 we(More)
BACKGROUND These recommendations have been developed to improve the care of intensive care unit (ICU) patients during the dying process. The recommendations build on those published in 2003 and highlight recent developments in the field from a U.S. perspective. They do not use an evidence grading system because most of the recommendations are based on(More)
Highly active antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has produced significant declines in morbidity and mortality from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Whether this therapy has resulted in changes in epidemiology and outcomes of intensive care among HIV-infected patients is unknown. We performed chart review of all(More)
OBJECTIVE Rationing critical care beds occurs daily in the hospital setting. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the impact of rationing intensive care unit beds on the process and outcomes of care. DATA SOURCE We searched MEDLINE (1966-2003), CINAHL (1982-2003), Ovid Healthstar (1975-2003), EMBASE (1980-2003), Scisearch (1980-2003),(More)
This investigation was undertaken to determine whether a Starling resistor or venous waterfall effect exists between the sagittal sinus and the cerebral veins such that increases in sagittal sinus pressure (Pss) do not abolish cerebral venous outflow and to examine two possible contributions of extracranial venous valves in regulating outflow. Anesthetized(More)
BACKGROUND Important international differences exist in attitudes toward end-of-life issues in the intensive care unit. METHODS A simple questionnaire survey was sent by e-mail to participants at an international meeting on intensive care medicine. Respondents were asked to choose 1 of 3 to 5 possible answers for each of 4 questions related to the(More)
Eighty-two patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs) at San Francisco General Hospital (SFGH) between March 1981 and December 1985. Of these patients, 69% died in the hospital, as did 87% of patients who required mechanical ventilation because of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and(More)
Corticosteroids are widely used as therapy for the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) without proof of efficacy. We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of methylprednisolone therapy in 99 patients with refractory hypoxemia, diffuse bilateral infiltrates on chest radiography and absence of congestive heart(More)