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Unrestrained human arm trajectories between point targets have been investigated using a three-dimensional tracking apparatus, the Selspot system. Movements were executed between different points in a vertical plane under varying conditions of speed and hand-held load. In contrast to past results which emphasized the straightness of hand paths, movement(More)
Movement of multiple segment limbs requires generation of appropriate joint torques which include terms arising from dynamic interactions among the moving segments as well as from such external forces as gravity. The interaction torques, arising from inertial, centripetal, and Coriolis forces, are not present for single joint movements. The significance of(More)
The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which subjects modulate their elbow joint mechanical properties during ongoing arm movement. Small pseudo-random force disturbances were applied to the wrist with an airjet actuator while subjects executed large (1 rad) elbow joint movements. Using a lumped parameter model of the muscle, tendom and(More)
Experiments were conducted on length resolution for objects held between the thumb and fore-finger. The just noticeable difference in length measured in discrimination experiments is roughly 1 mm for reference lengths of 10 to 20 mm. It increases monotonically with reference length but violates Weber's law. Also, it decreases when the subject is permitted(More)
— A unified formulation for the calibration of both serial-link robots and robotic mechanisms having kinematic closed-loops is presented and applied experimentally to two 6-degree-of-freedom devices: the RSI 6-DOF Hand Controller and the MEL " Modified Stewart Platform. " The unification is based on an equivalence between end-effector measurements and(More)
An essential component in the execution of image-guided surgery is a hand-held probe whose spatial position is tracked during the procedure and displayed on a three-dimensional operative workstation. This paper describes an experiment performed in order to compare the accuracy of a mechanically linked pointing device (FARO surgical arm) and an optical(More)
This paper presents studies of the coordination of voluntary human arm movements. A mathematical model is formulated which is shown to predict both the qualitative features and the quantitative details observed experimentally in planar, multijoint arm movements. Coordination is modeled mathematically by defining an objective function, a measure of(More)
This paper presents a new observability index to quantify the selection of best pose set in robot calibration. This noise amplification index is considerably more sensitive to calibration error than previously published observability indices. Support for the proposed andex is provided analytically and geometrically, and also through comparison against(More)