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Haplotype-based methods offer a powerful approach to disease gene mapping, based on the association between causal mutations and the ancestral haplotypes on which they arose. As part of The SNP Consortium Allele Frequency Projects, we characterized haplotype patterns across 51 autosomal regions (spanning 13 megabases of the human genome) in samples from(More)
The ability to detect recent natural selection in the human population would have profound implications for the study of human history and for medicine. Here, we introduce a framework for detecting the genetic imprint of recent positive selection by analysing long-range haplotypes in human populations. We first identify haplotypes at a locus of interest(More)
Variation in the human genome sequence is key to understanding susceptibility to disease in modern populations and the history of ancestral populations. Unlocking this information requires knowledge of the patterns and underlying causes of human sequence diversity. By applying a new population-genetic framework to two genome-wide polymorphism surveys, we(More)
Monocytes (Mo) and macrophages (MΦ) are emerging therapeutic targets in malignant, cardiovascular, and autoimmune disorders. Targeting of Mo/MΦ and their effector functions without compromising innate immunity's critical defense mechanisms first requires addressing gaps in knowledge about the life cycle of these cells. Here we studied the source, tissue(More)
The Ca, Mg, O, and C isotopic and trace elemental compositions of marine limestones and dolostones from ODP Site 1196A, which range in depth ($58 to 627 mbsf) and in depositional age ($5 and 23 Ma), are presented. The objectives of the study are to explore the potential for non-traditional isotope systems to fingerprint diagenesis, to quantify the extent to(More)
We have used a microfluidic mass sensor to measure the density of single living cells. By weighing each cell in two fluids of different densities, our technique measures the single-cell mass, volume, and density of approximately 500 cells per hour with a density precision of 0.001 g mL(-1). We observe that the intrinsic cell-to-cell variation in density is(More)
The pathophysiology of sickle cell disease is complicated by the multiscale processes that link the molecular genotype to the organismal phenotype: hemoglobin polymerization occurring in milliseconds, microscopic cellular sickling in a few seconds or less [Eaton WA, Hofrichter J (1990) Adv Protein Chem 40:63-279], and macroscopic vessel occlusion over a(More)
Blood is a dense suspension of soft non-Brownian cells of unique importance. Physiological blood flow involves complex interactions of blood cells with each other and with the environment due to the combined effects of varying cell concentration, cell morphology, cell rheology, and confinement. We analyze these interactions using computational morphological(More)
The systems controlling the number, size, and hemoglobin concentrations of populations of human red blood cells (RBCs), and their dysregulation in anemia, are poorly understood. After release from the bone marrow, RBCs undergo reduction in both volume and total hemoglobin content by an unknown mechanism [Lew VL, et al. (1995) Blood 86:334-341; Waugh RE, et(More)
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by the abnormal deformation of red blood cells (RBCs) in the deoxygenated condition, as their elongated shape leads to compromised circulation. The pathophysiology of SCD is influenced by both the biomechanical properties of RBCs and their hemodynamic properties in the microvasculature. A major challenge in the(More)