John M. Hayes

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The serpentinite-hosted Lost City hydrothermal field is a remarkable submarine ecosystem in which geological, chemical, and biological processes are intimately interlinked. Reactions between seawater and upper mantle peridotite produce methane- and hydrogen-rich fluids, with temperatures ranging from <40 degrees to 90 degrees C at pH 9 to 11, and carbonate(More)
Hydrogen isotope ratios (D/H) of lipid biomarkers extracted from aquatic sediments were measured to determine whether they can be used as a proxy for D/H of environmental water. Values of dD were determined by using a recently developed isotope-ratio-monitoring gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer system (irmGCMS) and were confirmed by conventional hydrogen(More)
Earth's biogeochemical cycle of carbon delivers both limestones and organic materials to the crust. In numerous, biologically catalysed redox reactions, hydrogen, sulphur, iron, and oxygen serve prominently as electron donors and acceptors. The progress of these reactions can be reconstructed from records of variations in the abundance of 13C in sedimentary(More)
The existence of unusually large fluctuations in the Neoproterozoic (1,000-543 million years ago) carbon-isotopic record implies strong perturbations to the Earth's carbon cycle. To analyze these fluctuations, we examine records of both the isotopic content of carbonate carbon and the fractionation between carbonate and marine organic carbon. Together,(More)
Isotopic compositions of carbon-bound hydrogen in individual compounds from eight di€erent organisms were measured using isotope-ratio-monitoring gas chromatography±mass spectrometry. This technique is capable of measuring D/H ratios at natural abundance in individual lipids yielding as little as 20 nmol of H2, and is applicable to a wide range of compounds(More)
OBJECTIVE Neuropathy is a frequent and severe complication of diabetes. Multiple metabolic defects in type 2 diabetic patients result in oxidative injury of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. Our previous work focused on hyperglycemia clearly demonstrates induction of mitochondrial oxidative stress and acute injury in DRG neurons; however, this mechanism is(More)
Convergent lines of molecular, carbon-isotopic, and phylogenetic evidence have previously indicated (Hinrichs, K.U., Hayes, J.M., Sylva, S.P., Brewer, P.G., DeLong, E.F., 1999. Methane-consuming archaebacteria in marine sediments. Nature 398, 802±805.) that archaea are involved in the anaerobic oxidation of methane in sediments from the Eel River Basin,(More)
Hydrogen-isotopic data are often interpreted using mathematical approximations originally intended for other isotopes. One of the most common, apparent in literature over the last several decades, assumes that delta values of reactants and products are separated by a constant fractionation factor: p r p/r. Because of the large fractionations that affect(More)
As the population of the United States ages, the incidence of age-related neurodegenerative and systemic diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and diabetes is increasing rapidly. Multiple studies report that patients with diabetes have a 50-75% increased risk of developing AD compared with age- and gender-matched patients without diabetes. Abnormally(More)
OBJECTIVE A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development and progression of diabetic neuropathy (DN) is essential for the design of mechanism-based therapies. We examined changes in global gene expression to define pathways regulated by diabetes in peripheral nerve. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Microarray data for 24-week-old(More)