John M Gardiner

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The functional relationship between memory and consciousness was investigated in two experiments in which subjects indicated when recognizing an item whether they could consciously recollect its prior occurrence in the study list or recognized it on some other basis, in the absence of conscious recollection. Low-frequency words, relative to high-frequency(More)
Episodic memory is identified with autonoetic consciousness, which gives rise to remembering in the sense of self-recollection in the mental re-enactment of previous events at which one was present. Autonoetic consciousness is distinguished from noetic consciousness, which gives rise to awareness of the past that is limited to feelings of familiarity or(More)
The functional relation between recognition memory and conscious awareness was assessed in an experiment in which undivided attention at study was compared with two divided attention conditions, one more demanding than the other. When recognizing a word from the study list, subjects indicated whether they could consciously recollect its prior occurrence or(More)
Two experiments are described in which the memory of adults with Asperger's syndrome is compared with that of verbal IQ controls. The results of the first experiment showed that the Asperger subjects resembled autistic adults and children in their failure to use category information to aid their free recall. In the second experiment, both groups of subjects(More)
A meta-analysis of proportions of remember, know, and guess responses was carried out on observations from 86 experimental conditions in 23 different recognition memory experiments. Unlike remember and know responses, guess responses revealed no memory for the test items that elicited them. A signal detection analysis of these data showed that A' estimates(More)
Memory difficulties in autism are observed mainly on measures like free recall, where test procedures provide no support for memory. When support is present, such as in cued recall, difficulties are less evident. Such observations may explain the mixed findings on source memory in autism. Bennetto, Pennington and Rogers (Child Development, 67, 1816-1835)(More)
A group of adults with Asperger syndrome and an IQ-matched control group were compared in remember versus know recognition memory. Word frequency was also manipulated. Both groups showed superior recognition for low-frequency compared with high-frequency words, and in both groups this word frequency effect occurred in remembering, not in knowing. Nor did(More)
The effects of lorazepam (2 mg) and placebo upon recognition memory with and without conscious recollection were assessed in a cross-over study with normal volunteers. When recognising a word from study lists presented before and 1, 3 and 5 h after drug administration, subjects were required to indicate whether they could consciously recollect the word's(More)
Retention interval was manipulated in two recognition-memory experiments in which subjects indicated when recognizing a word whether its recognition was accompanied by some recollective experience ("remember") or whether it was recognized on the basis of familiarity without any recollective experience ("know"). Experiment 1 showed that between 10 min and 1(More)