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We have developed a framework for analyzing images, called Shells and Spheres, based on a set of spheres with adjustable radii, with exactly one sphere centered at each image pixel. This set of spheres, known as a sphere map, is considered optimized when each sphere reaches, but does not cross, the nearest boundary. Calculations denoted as Variable-Scale(More)
The concept and instantiation of real-time tomographic holography (RTTH) for augmented reality is presented. RTTH enables natural hand-eye coordination to guide invasive medical procedures without requiring tracking or a head-mounted device. It places a real-time virtual image of an object's cross section into its actual location, without noticeable(More)
We present a novel and relatively simple method for magnifying forces perceived by an operator using a tool. A sensor measures the force between the tip of a tool and its handle held by the operator's fingers. These measurements are used to create a proportionally greater force between the handle and a brace attached to the operator's hand, providing an(More)
This paper presents results generated with a new evolutionary robotics (ER) simulation environment and its complementary real mobile robot colony research test-bed. Neural controllers producing mobile robot maze searching and exploration behaviors using binary tactile sensors as inputs were evolved in a simulated environment and subsequently transferred to(More)
This paper describes a method for building small, inexpensive, autonomous mobile robot systems in order to study into robot colonies. We describe how to build EvBot mobile robot colonies that can be used to navigate through mazes of varying complexity, display intelligent control, produce evolutionary computing algorithms, and use low-bandwidth distributed(More)
Real Time Tomographic Reflection (RTTR) permits in situ visualization of tomographic images, enabling natural hand-eye coordination to guide invasive procedures. The method as originally developed uses a half-silvered mirror to merge the visual outer surface of the patient with a simultaneous scan of the patient's interior. A viewpoint-independent virtual(More)
With modern automated microscopes and digital cameras, pathologists no longer have to examine samples looking through microscope binoculars. Instead, the slide is digitized to an image, which can then be examined on a screen. This creates the possibility for computers to analyze the image. In this work, a fully automated approach to region of interest (ROI)(More)
We have developed a novel framework for medical image analysis , known as Shells and Spheres. This framework utilizes spherical operators of variable radius centered at each image pixel and sized to reach, but not cross, the nearest object boundary. Statistical population tests are performed on adjacent spheres to compare image regions across boundaries.(More)
– We present a new method of sensing the 3D visual environment and controlling objects within it. The human hand is well suited to interrogate and manipulate objects by physical contact; however, the hand is limited to surfaces within its reach. Extending the hand's innate ability, we mount miniature cameras on individual fingertips, permitting rapid(More)