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Interest in the level and organization of nucleotide diversity in domesticated plant lineages has recently been motivated by the potential for using association-based mapping techniques as a means for identifying the genes underlying complex traits. To date, however, such data have been available only for a relatively small number of well-characterized(More)
In microorganisms, noise in gene expression gives rise to cell-to-cell variability in protein concentrations. In mammalian cells, protein levels also vary and individual cells differ widely in their responsiveness to uniform physiological stimuli. In the case of apoptosis mediated by TRAIL (tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) it(More)
Apoptosis in response to TRAIL or TNF requires the activation of initiator caspases, which then activate the effector caspases that dismantle cells and cause death. However, little is known about the dynamics and regulatory logic linking initiators and effectors. Using a combination of live-cell reporters, flow cytometry, and immunoblotting, we find that(More)
Expressed sequence tag (EST) databases represent a potentially valuable resource for the development of molecular markers for use in evolutionary studies. Because EST-derived markers come from transcribed regions of the genome, they are likely to be conserved across a broader taxonomic range than are other sorts of markers. This paper describes a case study(More)
Recent advances in next-generation DNA sequencing technologies have made possible the development of high-throughput SNP genotyping platforms that allow for the simultaneous interrogation of thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Such resources have the potential to facilitate the rapid development of high-density genetic maps, and to enable(More)
When exposed to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a closely related death ligand and investigational therapeutic, cells enter a protracted period of variable duration in which only upstream initiator caspases are active. A subsequent and sudden transition marks activation of the downstream effector caspases that(More)
We review the factors influencing children's exposure to environmental contaminants and the data available to characterize and assess that exposure. Children's activity pattern data requirements are demonstrated in the context of the algorithms used to estimate exposure by inhalation, dermal contact, and ingestion. Currently, data on children's exposures(More)
Until recently, parallel genotypic adaptation was considered unlikely because phenotypic differences were thought to be controlled by many genes. There is increasing evidence, however, that phenotypic variation sometimes has a simple genetic basis and that parallel adaptation at the genotypic level may be more frequent than previously believed. Here, we(More)
Comparative genetic linkage maps provide a powerful tool for the study of karyotypic evolution. We constructed a joint SSR/RAPD genetic linkage map of the Helianthus petiolaris genome and used it, along with an integrated SSR genetic linkage map derived from four independent H. annuus mapping populations, to examine the evolution of genome structure between(More)