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Interest in the level and organization of nucleotide diversity in domesticated plant lineages has recently been motivated by the potential for using association-based mapping techniques as a means for identifying the genes underlying complex traits. To date, however, such data have been available only for a relatively small number of well-characterized(More)
In microorganisms, noise in gene expression gives rise to cell-to-cell variability in protein concentrations. In mammalian cells, protein levels also vary and individual cells differ widely in their responsiveness to uniform physiological stimuli. In the case of apoptosis mediated by TRAIL (tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) it(More)
BACKGROUND The catalytic activity of RNA enzymes is thought to require divalent metal ions, which are believed to facilitate RNA folding and to play a direct chemical role in the reaction. RESULTS We have found that the hammerhead, hairpin and VS ribozymes do not require divalent metal ions, their mimics such as [Co(NH3)6]3+, or even monovalent metal ions(More)
Apoptosis in response to TRAIL or TNF requires the activation of initiator caspases, which then activate the effector caspases that dismantle cells and cause death. However, little is known about the dynamics and regulatory logic linking initiators and effectors. Using a combination of live-cell reporters, flow cytometry, and immunoblotting, we find that(More)
When exposed to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a closely related death ligand and investigational therapeutic, cells enter a protracted period of variable duration in which only upstream initiator caspases are active. A subsequent and sudden transition marks activation of the downstream effector caspases that(More)
PURPOSE Sunitinib has shown antitumor activity with a manageable safety profile as metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treatment, when given by the standard intermittent schedule as well as a continuous daily dosing (CDD) schedule. A trial was conducted to compare the schedules. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with treatment-naive, clear cell advanced RCC(More)
Over the years, the evolutionary importance of natural hybridization has been a contentious issue. At one extreme is the relatively common view of hybridization as an evolutionarily unimportant process. A less common perspective, but one that has gained support over the past decade, is that of hybridization as a relatively widespread and potentially(More)
Selection is widely accepted as the principal force shaping phenotypic variation within populations. Its importance in speciation and macroevolution has been questioned, however, because phenotypic differences between species or higher taxa sometimes appear to be nonadaptive. Here, we use the quantitative trait locus (QTL) sign test to evaluate the(More)
Expressed sequence tag (EST) databases represent a potentially valuable resource for the development of molecular markers for use in evolutionary studies. Because EST-derived markers come from transcribed regions of the genome, they are likely to be conserved across a broader taxonomic range than are other sorts of markers. This paper describes a case study(More)