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Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a conserved sensor of intracellular energy activated in response to low nutrient availability and environmental stress. In a screen for conserved substrates of AMPK, we identified ULK1 and ULK2, mammalian orthologs of the yeast protein kinase Atg1, which is required for autophagy. Genetic analysis(More)
HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor) is a transcription factor that plays a pivotal role in cellular adaptation to changes in oxygen availability. In the presence of oxygen, HIF is targeted for destruction by an E3 ubiquitin ligase containing the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein (pVHL). We found that human pVHL binds to a short HIF-derived peptide when(More)
Growth factors stimulate cells to take up excess nutrients and to use them for anabolic processes. The biochemical mechanism by which this is accomplished is not fully understood but it is initiated by phosphorylation of signalling proteins on tyrosine residues. Using a novel proteomic screen for phosphotyrosine-binding proteins, we have made the(More)
Control of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentrations is critical for cancer cell survival. We show that, in human lung cancer cells, acute increases in intracellular concentrations of ROS caused inhibition of the glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) through oxidation of Cys(358). This inhibition of PKM2 is required to divert glucose(More)
BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1) encodes a putative Leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase in Arabidopsis that has been shown by genetic and molecular analysis to be a critical component of brassinosteroid signal transduction. In this study we examined some of the biochemical properties of the BRI1 kinase domain (BRI1-KD) in vitro, which might be important(More)
Insulin stimulates the rapid translocation of intracellular glucose transporters of the GLUT4 isotype to the plasma membrane in fat and muscle cells. The connections between known insulin signaling pathways and the protein machinery of this membrane-trafficking process have not been fully defined. Recently, we identified a 160-kDa protein in adipocytes,(More)
Tumor maintenance relies on continued activity of driver oncogenes, although their rate-limiting role is highly context dependent. Oncogenic Kras mutation is the signature event in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), serving a critical role in tumor initiation. Here, an inducible Kras(G12D)-driven PDAC mouse model establishes that advanced PDAC remains(More)
This study describes a method for the identification of the substrates of specific serine kinases. An antibody specific for the phosphomotif generated by the kinase is used to isolate phosphorylated substrates by immunoprecipitation, and the isolated proteins are identified by tandem mass spectrometry of peptides. This method was applied to the(More)
Fossilized bones from extinct taxa harbor the potential for obtaining protein or DNA sequences that could reveal evolutionary links to extant species. We used mass spectrometry to obtain protein sequences from bones of a 160,000- to 600,000-year-old extinct mastodon (Mammut americanum) and a 68-million-year-old dinosaur (Tyrannosaurus rex). The presence of(More)