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Several microbial pathogens including enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) exploit mammalian tyrosine-kinase signaling cascades to recruit Nck adaptor proteins and activate N-WASP-Arp2/3-mediated actin assembly. To promote localized actin "pedestal formation," EPEC translocates the bacterial effector protein Tir into the plasma membrane, where it is(More)
Mammalian cell receptors that promote entry of intracellular bacteria into nonphagocytic cells have not been identified. We show here that multiple members of the integrin superfamily of cell adhesion receptors bind the Y. pseudotuberculosis invasin protein prior to bacterial penetration into mammalian cells. Affinity chromatography of crude detergent(More)
Many microbial pathogens employ antigenic variation as a strategy to evade the immune system, posing a challenge in vaccine development. To understand the requirements for immunity against such pathogens, we studied Borrelia hermsii, a relapsing fever bacterium. We found that mice deficient in T, follicular B, marginal zone B, or B1a lymphocytes resolved B.(More)
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) stimulates tyrosine-kinase signalling cascades to trigger localized actin assembly within mammalian cells. During actin 'pedestal' formation, the EPEC effector protein Tir is translocated into the plasma membrane, becomes phosphorylated on tyrosine-474 (Y474) and promotes recruitment of the mammalian adaptor protein(More)
Systemic infections with Gram-negative bacteria are characterized by high mortality rates due to the "sepsis syndrome," a widespread and uncontrolled inflammatory response. Though it is well recognized that the immune response during Gram-negative bacterial infection is initiated after the recognition of endotoxin by Toll-like receptor 4, the molecular(More)
We determined the humoral immune response to outer surface protein C (OspC) of Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with early or late manifestations of Lyme disease and investigated the use of this antigen in the serodiagnosis of early infection. The ospC gene from the low-passage human isolate 297, a North American B. burgdorferi strain, was used to make a(More)
Members of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family control actin dynamics in eukaryotic cells by stimulating the actin nucleating activity of the Arp2/3 complex. The prevailing paradigm for WASP regulation invokes allosteric relief of autoinhibition by diverse upstream activators. Here we demonstrate an additional level of regulation that is(More)
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) translocates effector proteins into mammalian cells to promote reorganization of the cytoskeleton into filamentous actin pedestals. One effector, Tir, is a transmembrane receptor for the bacterial surface adhesin intimin, and intimin binding by the extracellular domain of Tir is required for actin assembly. The(More)
The invasin protein of the pathogenic Yersinia pseudotuberculosis mediates entry of the bacterium into cultured mammalian cells by binding several beta 1 chain integrins. In this study, we identified the region of invasin responsible for cell recognition. Thirty-two monoclonal antibodies directed against invasin were isolated, and of those, six blocked cell(More)
Lyme disease is a chronic, multisystemic infection caused by the tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Attachment of the spirochete to host cells via specific receptors is likely to be important in the establishment of infection. B. burgdorferi have previously been shown to bind to a variety of mammalian cells in vitro. Here we demonstrate that(More)